The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

AC1L19WH     [[5-(2-amino-6-oxo-3H-purin- 9-yl)-4...

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of guanosine pentaphosphate

  • In Escherichia coli, amino acid starvation triggers the rapid synthesis of two guanosine polyphosphates, pppGpp and ppGpp (the 3'-pyrophosphates of GTP and GDP, respectively) [1].
  • Borrelia burgdorferi rel is responsible for generation of guanosine-3'-diphosphate-5'-triphosphate and growth control [2].
  • The stringent response is a mechanism by which bacteria adapt to nutritional deficiencies through the production of the guanine nucleotides ppGpp and pppGpp, produced by the RelA enzyme [3].
  • Accumulation of ppGpp and pppGpp during nitrogen deprivation of the cyanophyte Anabaena cylindrica [4].
  • Partial amino acid deprivation of Bacillus subtilis, which evokes the stringent response, initiates sporulation not because the highly phosphorylated guanine nucleotides guanosine-5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine-5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) increase but because GTP decreases [5].

High impact information on guanosine pentaphosphate


Chemical compound and disease context of guanosine pentaphosphate


Biological context of guanosine pentaphosphate

  • The k(cat) for hydrolysis, however, is reduced 2-fold and K(m) for pppGpp increased 2-fold from basal levels in the presence of the Rel(Mtb) activating complex [12].
  • The data were consistent with the interpretation that ppGpp is a positive effector of his operon expression, whereas pppGpp is not an essential effector [13].
  • Neither ppGpp nor pppGpp appeared to influence gnd gene expression [13].
  • Kinetics of accumulation and degradation of ppGpp and pppGpp were analysed in spoT+ and spoT strains of Escherichia coli [14].
  • This activates the rel gene product which forms ppGpp and pppGpp from GTP and ATP [15].

Anatomical context of guanosine pentaphosphate


Associations of guanosine pentaphosphate with other chemical compounds

  • The accumulation of ppGpp and pppGpp in the presence of charged tRNA provided by chloramphenicol treatment suggests that the signal for the synthesis of unusual nucleotides is an inhibition of the binding of tRNA (charged or uncharged) to the acceptor site of the ribosome [15].

Gene context of guanosine pentaphosphate

  • This result indicates that spoT also participates in pppGpp degradation [17].
  • Two independent mutants were isolated which resemble relaxed (relA) mutants of Escherichia coli; they continue to synthesize RNA and accumulate neither ppGpp nor pppGpp when deprived of the required amino acid [18].
  • While d-pppGpp closely resembled pppGpp in its very low activity with EF-G, d-pppGp was somewhat more active [19].
  • Ribosomes carrying either EF-Tu or EF-G are active in binding the stringent factor; however, they are inactive in synthesizing guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) and guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) [20].
  • These results strongly support the identity of GPSI as a bifunctional enzyme capable of both pppGpp synthesis and polynucleotide phosphorylase activities [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of guanosine pentaphosphate


  1. Accumulation of ppGpp in a relA mutant of Escherichia coli during amino acid starvation. Török, I., Kari, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Borrelia burgdorferi rel is responsible for generation of guanosine-3'-diphosphate-5'-triphosphate and growth control. Bugrysheva, J.V., Bryksin, A.V., Godfrey, H.P., Cabello, F.C. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relA contributes to virulence in Drosophila melanogaster. Erickson, D.L., Lines, J.L., Pesci, E.C., Venturi, V., Storey, D.G. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Accumulation of ppGpp and pppGpp during nitrogen deprivation of the cyanophyte Anabaena cylindrica. Akinyanju, J., Smith, R.J. FEBS Lett. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence that Bacillus subtilis sporulation induced by the stringent response is caused by the decrease in GTP or GDP. Ochi, K., Kandala, J., Freese, E. J. Bacteriol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro degradation of guanosine 5'-diphosphate, 3'-diphosphate. Sy, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate, 3'-diphosphate 5'-phosphohydrolase. Purification and substrate specificity. Hara, A., Sy, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. The Flexible N-terminal Domain of Ribosomal Protein L11 from Escherichia coli Is Necessary for the Activation of Stringent Factor. Jenvert, R.M., Schiavone, L.H. J. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Synthesis of guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphates by the obligately anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in response to molecular oxygen. Glass, T.L., Holmes, W.M., Hylemon, P.B., Stellwag, E.J. J. Bacteriol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Purine nucleotide pyrophosphotransferase from Streptomyces morookaensis, capable of synthesizing pppApp and pppGpp. Oki, T., Yoshimoto, A., Sato, S., Takamatsu, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Synthesis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate in a spo T strain of Escherichia coli. Chaloner-Larsson, G., Yamazaki, H. Can. J. Biochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential regulation of opposing RelMtb activities by the aminoacylation state of a tRNA.ribosome.mRNA.RelMtb complex. Avarbock, D., Avarbock, A., Rubin, H. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutation spoT of Escherichia coli increases expression of the histidine operon deleted for the attenuator. Winkler, M.E., Zawodny, R.V., Hartman, P.E. J. Bacteriol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. ppGpp cycle in Escherichia coli. Kari, C., Török, I., Travers, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Studies on the control of development. Accumulation of guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate in response to inhibition of protein synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. Rhaese, H.J., Dichtelmüller, H., Grade, R. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Transcription of the E. coli tufB gene: cotranscription with four tRNA genes and inhibition by guanosine-5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate. Miyajima, A., Shibuya, M., Kuchino, Y., Kaziro, Y. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Mutants of Escherichia coli defective in the degradation of guanosine 5'-triphosphate, 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp). Somerville, C.R., Ahmed, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Relaxed mutants of Serratia marcescens SM-6. Biochemical traits and relevance of the rel+ allele for the formation of exoenzymes. Bohne, L., Winkler, U. Arch. Microbiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Synthesis of deoxyguanosine polyphosphates and their interactions with the guanosine 5'-triphosphate requiring protein synthetic enzymes of Escherichia coli. Hamel, E., Heimer, E.P., Nussbaum, A.L. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Escherichia coli stringent factor binds to ribosomes at a site different from that of elongation factor Tu or G. Richter, D., Nowak, P., Kleinert, U. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Guanosine pentaphosphate synthetase from Streptomyces antibioticus is also a polynucleotide phosphorylase. Jones, G.H., Bibb, M.J. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. A duplicated fold is the structural basis for polynucleotide phosphorylase catalytic activity, processivity, and regulation. Symmons, M.F., Jones, G.H., Luisi, B.F. Structure (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities