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MeSH Review

Black Pepper

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Disease relevance of Black Pepper


High impact information on Black Pepper


Biological context of Black Pepper


Anatomical context of Black Pepper


Associations of Black Pepper with chemical compounds

  • Preliminary data indicate that piperine, a major component of black pepper, inhibits drug-metabolizing enzymes in rodents and increases plasma concentrations of several drugs, including P-glycoprotein substrates (phenytoin and rifampin) in humans [5].
  • The mutagenicity of the nitrite-treated methanol and hot water extracts of black pepper was highest (8380 and 22,200 His+ per 0.1 g of spice powder, respectively), and that of the nitrite-treated hot water extracts of caraway and tong tak was moderate [9].
  • Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: one group of smokers puffed on a device that delivered a vapor from essential oil of black pepper; a second group puffed on the device with a mint/menthol cartridge, and a third group used a device containing an empty cartridge [10].
  • In 126 samples obtained from retail shops, OA was found to exceed 10 microg/kg in 14 (in the range of 15-69 microg/kg) of 26 black pepper samples, 20 (in the range of 10-51 microg/kg) of 50 coriander samples, two (23 microg/kg and 80 microg/kg) of 25 ginger samples and nine (in the range of 11-102 microg/kg) of 25 turmeric samples [11].
  • The temperature dependency of extraction yield and efficiency was also determined for black pepper and chili using propane and dimethyl ether [12].

Gene context of Black Pepper

  • Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats [2].
  • Recoveries of each aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 spiked to red pepper, white pepper, black pepper, nutmeg and tear grass at the level of 10 ng/g were over 80-85% in all instances [13].
  • The findings revealed a significant and dose-dependent increase in GST and -SH content in the experimental groups except the one maintained on 0.5% black pepper diet for 10 days [14].
  • Swiss albino mice of either sex (eight weeks old) were fed on a diet containing 0.5%, 1% and 2% black pepper (w/w) for 10 and 20 days [14].
  • In the present study, a total of 380 samples of spices and herbs (cumin seed, black pepper, oregano, garlic powder, and bay leaves) widely used in Mexico were analyzed for the presence of C. perfringens, and the enterotoxigenicity of the isolates was determined by a dot-blot technique using an enterotoxin degoxigenin-labeled DNA probe [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Black Pepper


  1. Demonstration of spice-specific IgE in patients with suspected food allergies. van Toorenenbergen, A.W., Dieges, P.H. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress. Vijayakumar, R.S., Surya, D., Nalini, N. Redox Rep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Piperine: researchers discover new flavor in an ancient spice. Szallasi, A. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). McNamara, F.N., Randall, A., Gunthorpe, M.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Piperine, a major constituent of black pepper, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4. Bhardwaj, R.K., Glaeser, H., Becquemont, L., Klotz, U., Gupta, S.K., Fromm, M.F. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Similarities and differences in the currents activated by capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone in rat trigeminal ganglion cells. Liu, L., Simon, S.A. J. Neurophysiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Impairment of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase and glucuronidation activities in liver and small intestine of rat and guinea pig in vitro by piperine. Reen, R.K., Jamwal, D.S., Taneja, S.C., Koul, J.L., Dubey, R.K., Wiebel, F.J., Singh, J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of piperine, the active ingredient of black pepper, on intestinal secretion in mice. Capasso, R., Izzo, A.A., Borrelli, F., Russo, A., Sautebin, L., Pinto, A., Capasso, F., Mascolo, N. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of extracts of three spices and a medicinal plant in Thailand. Higashimoto, M., Purintrapiban, J., Kataoka, K., Kinouchi, T., Vinitketkumnuen, U., Akimoto, S., Matsumoto, H., Ohnishi, Y. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms. Rose, J.E., Behm, F.M. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in black pepper, coriander, ginger and turmeric in India. Thirumala-Devi, K., Mayo, M.A., Reddy, G., Tangni, E.K., Larondelle, Y., Reddy, D.V., Emmanuel, K.E. Food additives and contaminants. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Extraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Catchpole, O.J., Grey, J.B., Perry, N.B., Burgess, E.J., Redmond, W.A., Porter, N.G. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in spices using a multifunctional column clean-up. Akiyama, H., Goda, Y., Tanaka, T., Toyoda, M. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of the modulatory influence of black pepper (Piper nigrum, L.) on the hepatic detoxication system. Singh, A., Rao, A.R. Cancer Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in spices used in Mexico by dot blotting using a DNA probe. Rodríguez-Romo, L.A., Heredia, N.L., Labbé, R.G., García-Alvarado, J.S. J. Food Prot. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of red and black pepper on orocecal transit time. Vazquez-Olivencia, W., Shah, P., Pitchumoni, C.S. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (1992) [Pubmed]
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