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Disease relevance of Urbanization


High impact information on Urbanization

  • DESIGN--The Compressed Mortality File, a county-level mortality and population database maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control, Hyattsville, Md, and the 1980 Human Resource Profile County Codes are used to analyze age-, sex-, and race-specific firearm and nonfirearm homicide rates by urbanization level [5].
  • The best predictors of NIDDM were age, BMI, WHR, and urbanization [6].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results point to a strong association between homicide and urbanization and socioeconomic conditions in all regions of the country for both Black and White males [7].
  • In particular, a significantly lower prevalence of RA in rural areas compared with urban cohorts has led to the hypothesis that environmental factors associated with urbanization may be involved in disease pathogenesis [8].
  • Variables that did not significantly improve the models predicting growth included family income, degree of urbanization, serum albumin, copper, iron, and zinc levels, dietary carbohydrate, fat, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine [9].

Biological context of Urbanization

  • A combination of urbanization and UCP2 genotype were considered to be responsible [10].
  • Two general practice variables, organization form and degree of urbanization influenced the global adherence, whereas all patient variables (age and gender) and the patient-related prescription characteristics (costs, volume, different ATC-codes) were significant predictors for the global adherence [11].

Associations of Urbanization with chemical compounds

  • Our objectives were to determine (1) if stream incision associated with urbanization results in lower riparian water tables, and (2) if pools, production, and consumption of NO3- vary systematically with stream incision and riparian water table levels [12].
  • During July and August of 1986, 1987, and 1988, a field study was conducted of ambient acidic aerosol levels in Toronto, Ontario. Fine particle mass (da < 2.5 microns) samples were collected twice daily at a central-city site for the determination of particulate-phase strong acidity (H+) and sulfate (SO4 =) [13].
  • Only, with sophisticated mixing models will we be able to address the total effect of urbanization on CO2 levels and the contribution to regional patterns [14].
  • It is concluded that black urbanization is characterized by a diminished folate status that is paradoxically associated with a lower NTD birth incidence [15].
  • Urbanization and the risk of asthma among schoolchildren in the Palestinian Authority [16].

Gene context of Urbanization

  • Because the kinetic properties of this enzyme were unique, we have designated it as G6PD Central City [17].
  • The degree of urbanization of the domicile did not have any statistically significant effect on the mortality from ADHD [18].
  • Myopia varies over age, gender, race, ethnicity, level of education, social class and degree of urbanization [19].
  • RESULTS: Hospital and HHA markets are partitioned primarily by the age and education of consumers and, to a lesser extent, by urbanization levels and public funding expenditures [20].
  • Decades of social and political unrest have contributed to the urbanization of the population of Peru with large-scale migration from rural Andean and Amazonian communities to overcrowded shantytowns around Lima [21].


  1. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in a newly independent Pacific nation: the Republic of Kiribati. King, H., Taylor, R., Zimmet, P., Pargeter, K., Raper, L.R., Beriki, T., Tekanene, J. Diabetes Care (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Epidemiologic features of Reye syndrome seen in southwestern Pennsylvania 1970-80. Ruben, F., Streiff, E., Neal, M., Lehberger, L., Hreha, M., Michaels, R. American journal of public health. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Urbanization and the risk for chronic diseases of lifestyle in the black population of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Steyn, K., Kazenellenbogen, J.M., Lombard, C.J., Bourne, L.T. Journal of cardiovascular risk. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of urbanization on transmission of human African trypanosomiasis in a suburban relict forest area of Daloa, Côte d'Ivoire. Fournet, F., Traoré, S., Hervouët, J.P. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Firearm and nonfirearm homicide among persons 15 through 19 years of age. Differences by level of urbanization, United States, 1979 through 1989. Fingerhut, L.A., Ingram, D.D., Feldman, J.J. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevalence of glucose intolerance in Asian Indians. Urban-rural difference and significance of upper body adiposity. Ramachandran, A., Snehalatha, C., Dharmaraj, D., Viswanathan, M. Diabetes Care (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Social context and geographic patterns of homicide among US black and white males. Cubbin, C., Pickle, L.W., Fingerhut, L. American journal of public health. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Rheumatic diseases in African blacks. Adebajo, A., Davis, P. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Relationship between childhood blood lead levels and stature. Schwartz, J., Angle, C., Pitcher, H. Pediatrics (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Leptin resistance conferred by a combination of single nucleotide polymorphism and the adoption of a Western lifestyle in urban areas of Thailand. Yanagisawa, Y., Iwamoto, S., Kawabata, T., Nakamura, Y., Charupoonphol, P., Supannatas, S., Sone, H., Kaneko, Y., Watanabe, S., Komatsu, F., Sakuma, M., Miyagi, S., Hasegawa, K., Kagawa, Y. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Factors influencing adherence to guidelines in general practice. Stewart, R.E., Vroegop, S., Kamps, G.B., van der Werf, G.T., Meyboom-de Jong, B. International journal of technology assessment in health care. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Soil nitrogen cycle processes in urban riparian zones. Groffman, P.M., Boulware, N.J., Zipperer, W.C., Pouyat, R.V., Band, L.E., Colosimo, M.F. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The nature and origins of acid summer haze air pollution in metropolitan Toronto, Ontario. Thurston, G.D., Gorczynski, J.E., Currie, J.H., He, D., Ito, K., Hipfner, J., Waldman, J., Lioy, P.J., Lippmann, M. Environmental research. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 emission sources in an arid urban environment. Koerner, B., Klopatek, J. Environ. Pollut. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Folate status, homocysteine metabolism, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase genotype in rural South African blacks with a history of pregnancy complicated by neural tube defects. Ubbink, J.B., Christianson, A., Bester, M.J., Van Allen, M.I., Venter, P.A., Delport, R., Blom, H.J., van der Merwe, A., Potgieter, H., Vermaak, W.J. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Urbanization and the risk of asthma among schoolchildren in the Palestinian Authority. Hasan, M.M., Gofin, R., Bar-Yishay, E. The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of a new glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant: G6PD Central City. Csepreghy, M., Yeilding, A., Lilly, M., Hall, K., Scott, C.W., Prchal, J.T. Am. J. Hematol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Arteriosclerotic and other degenerative heart diseases in Finland. I. A death certificate study of the frequency of degenerative heart diseases among males and females. Penttilä, A., Ahonen, A. Scandinavian journal of social medicine. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. The epidemiology of myopia. Angle, J., Wissmann, D.A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. An organizational field approach to resource environments in healthcare: comparing entries of hospitals and home health agencies in the San Francisco Bay region. Ruef, M., Mendel, P., Scott, W.R. Health services research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Does traditional medicine use hamper efforts at tuberculosis control in urban Peru? Oeser, C.C., Escombe, A.R., Gilman, R.H., Friedland, J.S., Evans, C.A., Moore, D.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2005) [Pubmed]
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