The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on Cnidaria

  • Here we describe the molecular characterization of members of the Wnt signalling pathway--Wnt, Dishevelled, GSK3, beta-Catenin and Tcf/Lef--in Hydra, a member of the evolutionarily old metazoan phylum Cnidaria [1].
  • The Wnt signaling pathway plays essential roles in embryogenesis of higher eukaryotes from diploblastic, radially symmetrical cnidarians to mice and humans [2].
  • Among those, homologs to forkhead, emx, aristaless, goosecoid, brachyury, wnt and nanos genes are regulated during apical patterning in cnidarians, suggesting that key components of early organizer activity were conserved across evolution and recruited for either anterior, axial, or dorso-ventral patterning in bilaterians [3].
  • Cnidarians are among the simplest extant animals; however EST analyses reveal that they have a remarkably high level of genetic complexity [4].
  • In contrast to known selenoproteins, SelJ appears to be restricted to actinopterygian fishes and sea urchin, with Cys homologues only found in cnidarians [5].

Biological context of Cnidaria


Associations of Cnidaria with chemical compounds

  • We have identified and sequenced cDNAs encoding integrin beta subunits from a coral (phylum Cnidaria) and a sponge (Porifera), indicating that these proteins existed in the earliest stages of metazoan evolution [10].
  • However, despite extensive research on photoproteins, there has been no evidence to indicate the origin of coelenterazine within the phylum Cnidaria [11].
  • Amino acid assignments of metazoan mitochondrial codons AGA/AGG are known to vary among animal species; arginine in Cnidaria, serine in invertebrates and stop in vertebrates [12].
  • We have clarified, for the first time, the spatiotemporal patterns of intracellular Ca(2+) increases at fertilization and the Ca(2+)-mobilizing mechanisms in eggs of hydrozoan jellyfish, which belong to the evolutionarily old diploblastic phylum, Cnidaria [13].
  • In Cnidaria, the production of neurotoxic polypeptides is attributed to the ectodermal stinging cells (cnidocytes), which are discharged for offensive (prey capture) and/or defensive purposes [14].

Gene context of Cnidaria

  • The evolutionary origin of the VEGF signalling pathway resides in the common ancestor of the Cnidaria and Bilateria [15].
  • For example, homologs to the key developmental factor bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 have been cloned by sequence identity from arthropods, mollusks, cnidarians, and nematodes [16].
  • However, the T-box gene Brachyury could be isolated from sponges, placozoans and cnidarians [17].
  • Here, we report the presence of VEGF and VEGFR homologous genes in a basal invertebrate of the phylum Cnidaria [15].
  • Given the early divergence of Cnidarians during evolution, these studies indicate the highly conserved nature of laminin and provide additional information regarding the critical role of ECM components during hydra development [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cnidaria


  1. WNT signalling molecules act in axis formation in the diploblastic metazoan Hydra. Hobmayer, B., Rentzsch, F., Kuhn, K., Happel, C.M., von Laue, C.C., Snyder, P., Rothbächer, U., Holstein, T.W. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The canonical Wnt pathway in early mammalian embryogenesis and stem cell maintenance/differentiation. Wang, J., Wynshaw-Boris, A. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Conserved and divergent genes in apex and axis development of cnidarians. Galliot, B. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Maintenance of ancestral complexity and non-metazoan genes in two basal cnidarians. Technau, U., Rudd, S., Maxwell, P., Gordon, P.M., Saina, M., Grasso, L.C., Hayward, D.C., Sensen, C.W., Saint, R., Holstein, T.W., Ball, E.E., Miller, D.J. Trends Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Diversity and functional plasticity of eukaryotic selenoproteins: identification and characterization of the SelJ family. Castellano, S., Lobanov, A.V., Chapple, C., Novoselov, S.V., Albrecht, M., Hua, D., Lescure, A., Lengauer, T., Krol, A., Gladyshev, V.N., Guigó, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Two mitochondrial group I introns in a metazoan, the sea anemone Metridium senile: one intron contains genes for subunits 1 and 3 of NADH dehydrogenase. Beagley, C.T., Okada, N.A., Wolstenholme, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. The mitochondrial genome of Acropora tenuis (Cnidaria; Scleractinia) contains a large group I intron and a candidate control region. van Oppen, M.J., Catmull, J., McDonald, B.J., Hislop, N.R., Hagerman, P.J., Miller, D.J. J. Mol. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Partial sequence of a sponge mitochondrial genome reveals sequence similarity to Cnidaria in cytochrome oxidase subunit II and the large ribosomal RNA subunit. Watkins, R.F., Beckenbach, A.T. J. Mol. Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A low diversity of ANTP class homeobox genes in Placozoa. Monteiro, A.S., Schierwater, B., Dellaporta, S.L., Holland, P.W. Evol. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular evolution of integrins: genes encoding integrin beta subunits from a coral and a sponge. Brower, D.L., Brower, S.M., Hayward, D.C., Ball, E.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Can coelenterates make coelenterazine? Dietary requirement for luciferin in cnidarian bioluminescence. Haddock, S.H., Rivers, T.J., Robison, B.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. An extra tRNAGly(U*CU) found in ascidian mitochondria responsible for decoding non-universal codons AGA/AGG as glycine. Kondow, A., Suzuki, T., Yokobori, S., Ueda, T., Watanabe, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Spatiotemporal characteristics and mechanisms of intracellular Ca(2+) increases at fertilization in eggs of jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa). Deguchi, R., Kondoh, E., Itoh, J. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Hydralysin, a novel animal group-selective paralytic and cytolytic protein from a noncnidocystic origin in hydra. Zhang, M., Fishman, Y., Sher, D., Zlotkin, E. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Homologs of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor, VEGF and VEGFR, in the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea. Seipel, K., Eberhardt, M., Müller, P., Pescia, E., Yanze, N., Schmid, V. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. An evolutionary and molecular analysis of Bmp2 expression. Abrams, K.L., Xu, J., Nativelle-Serpentini, C., Dabirshahsahebi, S., Rogers, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. T-box and homeobox genes from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus: comparison of Brachyury, Tbx2/3 and Tlx in basal metazoans and bilaterians. Martinelli, C., Spring, J. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning and biological function of laminin in Hydra vulgaris. Sarras, M.P., Yan, L., Grens, A., Zhang, X., Agbas, A., Huff, J.K., St John, P.L., Abrahamson, D.R. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Cell-substrate interactions in cnidaria. Schmid, V., Ono, S.I., Reber-Müller, S. Microsc. Res. Tech. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities