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Gene Review

GSC  -  goosecoid homeobox

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Homeobox protein goosecoid
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Disease relevance of GSC

  • The Vitek AutoMicrobic System with GSC-plus cards and the Abbott MS-2 system were tested in parallel and the results were compared directly with those of a reference microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) procedure on a group of 262 clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa [1].
  • The clinical data of 30 patients with GSC after partial gastrectomy for benign gastric diseases were analyzed retrospectively [2].
  • We endoscopically measured pressures of the pancreatic duct (PP) and the sphincter of Oddi (SO) in patients with alcoholic (ALCP, n = 10), gallstone-associated (GSCP, n = 7), and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP, n = 21), and in 20 controls [3].

High impact information on GSC

  • To test this hypothesis, we have analysed the expression of brachyury, otx and goosecoid homologues in the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii, which develops by means of a trochophora larva-the primary, ciliary larva prototypic for Protostomia [4].
  • This notion was supported by a severe downregulation of FoxA2 and goosecoid in the anterior primitive streak of double mutant embryos [5].
  • Both Gsc and Msx are oral ectoderm specific in H. tuberculata, and show novel and distinct expression patterns in H. erythrogramma [6].
  • Only 1 drug (chloramphenicol) of 11 on the GPS and 1 (gentamicin) of 10 on the GSC Plus could be adequately controlled, leaving unsubstantiated the results obtained with patient isolates on the remaining 19 antimicrobial agents [7].
  • We have characterised orthologues of the genes fork head and goosecoid in the gastropod Patella vulgata [8].

Biological context of GSC


Anatomical context of GSC

  • GDC and GSC are not primary sensory neurons and the mechanism by which their actions are coordinated is polysynaptic [12].
  • In addition, since prechordal plate is known to belong to an anterior, so called "head organiser", and since its inductive role is dependent on the function of the vertebrate fork head and goosecoid orthologues, we further suggest that the anterior mesoderm may also have a role in anterior inductive patterning in Spiralia [8].
  • Both fork head and goosecoid are expressed from the time the AP axis is specified, up to the end of gastrulation. fork head mRNA is detected in the whole endoderm, as well as in the anterior mesoderm, whereas goosecoid is only expressed anteriorly, in the three germ layers [8].

Associations of GSC with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, the GDCs and the GSC, but not the GCs, metabolise [3H]DOPA to form dopamine [13].
  • METHODS: Fifteen severely head-injured patients (GSC of < or = 8) were randomly assigned to receive either fentanyl, sufentanil or morphine, titrating the drug to a maximal 10% decrease in MAP [14].
  • A galvanostatic stripping chronopotentiometric (GSCP) method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in commercial margarines and butters is described [15].
  • Every 6 months, a check-up included glucagon-stimulated C-peptide (GSCP), hyperglycemic glucose clamp with arginine bolus, euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and screening for microalbuminuria, retinopathy, and neuropathy [16].
  • These anomalies are similar to those detected in experimental exposure to isotretinoin, and are consistent with altered expression of the goosecoid gene [17].

Other interactions of GSC

  • We review how studies on the first Spemann-Mangold organizer marker, the homeobox gene goosecoid, led to the discovery of secreted factors that pattern the vertebrate embryo [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GSC

  • Microinjection of goosecoid mRNA formed secondary axes and recruited neighboring cells [18].
  • Global Single Cell Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (GSC RT-PCR) enables the study of single cell gene expression patterns [9].
  • While we have determined that there is a five fold methodological variation in GSC RT-PCR, any method which use its components (including generation of cDNAs for microarray analysis) is likely to be affected by such experimental variability, which could limit the interpretation of the resulting data [9].
  • This study compared results on a bank of samples using the tray agglutination test (TAT), immunobead test (IBT), GSC and a modified SpermCheck assay to detect a single isotype in each test (SISC) [19].
  • Expressions of goosecoid and no tail were detected by whole-mount in situ hybridization from 6 hpf [20].


  1. Comparison of two automated instrument systems for rapid susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli. Johnson, J.E., Jorgensen, J.H., Crawford, S.A., Redding, J.S., Pruneda, R.C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. The early diagnosis and surgical treatment of the gastric stump carcinoma. Chai, X., Wang, C., Li, Y. J. Tongji Med. Univ. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Motility of the sphincter of Oddi and pancreatic main ductal pressure in patients with alcoholic, gallstone-associated, and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Okazaki, K., Yamamoto, Y., Nishimori, I., Nishioka, T., Kagiyama, S., Tamura, S., Sakamoto, Y., Nakazawa, Y., Morita, M., Yamamoto, Y. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Evolution of the bilaterian larval foregut. Arendt, D., Technau, U., Wittbrodt, J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Synergistic interaction between Gdf1 and Nodal during anterior axis development. Andersson, O., Reissmann, E., Jörnvall, H., Ibáñez, C.F. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Dissociation of expression patterns of homeodomain transcription factors in the evolution of developmental mode in the sea urchins Heliocidaris tuberculata and H. erythrogramma. Wilson, K.A., Andrews, M.E., Raff, R.A. Evol. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Inability to adequately control antimicrobial agents on AutoMicrobic System Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Susceptibility Cards. Kellogg, J.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression patterns of fork head and goosecoid homologues in the mollusc Patella vulgata supports the ancestry of the anterior mesendoderm across Bilateria. Lartillot, N., Le Gouar, M., Adoutte, A. Dev. Genes Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Gene expression in individual cells: analysis using global single cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (GSC RT-PCR). Brail, L.H., Jang, A., Billia, F., Iscove, N.N., Klamut, H.J., Hill, R.P. Mutat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. Soini, Y., Näpänkangas, U., Järvinen, K., Kaarteenaho-Wiik, R., Pääkkö, P., Kinnula, V.L. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers. Wang, Q., Ruan, X., Huang, J.H., Xu, N.Y., Yan, Q.C. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Coordination of the activity of monoaminergic pedal neurons in freshwater snails. Tsyganov, V.V. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Dopamine metabolism in characterised neurones of Planorbis corneus. Osborne, N.N., Priggemeier, E., Neuhoff, V. Brain Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Opioid sedation does not alter intracranial pressure in head injured patients. Lauer, K.K., Connolly, L.A., Schmeling, W.T. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in margarines and butters by galvanostatic stripping chronopotentiometry. Szłyk, E., Szydłowska-Czerniak, A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Intensive therapy in adult insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and reserve: a randomized, controlled, prospective study over 5 years in newly diagnosed patients. Linn, T., Ortac, K., Laube, H., Federlin, K. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Temporal bone pathology in fetuses exposed to isotretinoin. Moerike, S., Pantzar, J.T., De Sa, D. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular mechanisms of cell-cell signaling by the Spemann-Mangold organizer. De Robertis, E.M., Wessely, O., Oelgeschläger, M., Brizuela, B., Pera, E., Larraín, J., Abreu, J., Bachiller, D. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. The detection of antisperm antibodies in serum: a comparison of the tray agglutination test, indirect immunobead test and indirect SpermCheck assay. Morroll, D.R., Lieberman, B.A., Matson, P.L. Int. J. Androl. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Embryonic stages from cleavage to gastrula in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. Fujimoto, T., Kataoka, T., Otani, S., Saito, T., Aita, T., Yamaha, E., Arai, K. Zool. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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