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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

SOS-inducing activity of chemical carcinogens and mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002: examination with 151 chemicals.

The umu test system is a newly developed method to evaluate genotoxic activities of a wide variety of environmental carcinogens and mutagens (Oda et al., 1985). In the present study, we further examined the abilities of 151 chemicals to induce umu gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. Among the chemicals examined, 72 compounds induced umu gene expression, which could be defined on a basis of increased beta-galactosidase activity by 2-fold over the background level. The potent genotoxic compounds without metabolic activation were adriamycin, bleomycin, daunorubicin, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, 1,8-dinitropyrene, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, furylfuramide, methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, mitomycin C, 1-nitropyrene and 4-nitroquino-line-1-oxide. In the presence of S9, aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene, Glu-P-1, IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 also induced umu gene expression markedly. Several chemicals such as 2-acetylaminofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, azobenzene, benzanthracene, benzidine, diethyl nitrosamine, 1-nitronaphthalene, paraquat, potassium dichromate and sodium nitrite were weakly genotoxic and the induction by these compounds could be detected only when the incubation time was prolonged from 2 h to 5 h. Data are also presented that some of the chemicals such as dimethyl sulfoxide, m-dioxan, 5-fluorouracil and paraquat, which have been reported to be non-mutagenic in Ames/Salmonella assay, were found to be active in inducing umu gene expression, while the known mutagenic compounds including acrylonitrile, 4,4'-dinitrobiphenyl, furfural, methylene chloride, 1-naphthylamine, sodium azide, o-tolidine and o-toluidine were non-genotoxic in the present assay system.[1]


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