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Chemical Compound Review

Dichromat     oxido-(oxido-dioxo- chromio)oxy-dioxo-chromium

Synonyms: Bichromate, Dichromate, Dichromate(2-), CHEBI:33141, AC1L2NHB, ...
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Disease relevance of Dichromates


Psychiatry related information on Dichromates


High impact information on Dichromates

  • Complete sporulation occurred within 5 to 13 days in oocysts maintained in potassium dichromate at 25 or 32 degrees C. Complete excystation resulted in the liberation of two sporozoites from the two sporocysts within each oocyst (cryptosporidia have four naked sporozoites within each oocyst) [7].
  • Thus, mutually exclusive expression of red and green pigment transgenes can be achieved in a large fraction of cones in a dichromat mammal, suggesting a facile evolutionary path for the development of trichromacy after visual pigment gene duplication [8].
  • Effects of potassium dichromate on nucleic acid and protein syntheses and on precursor uptake in BHK fibroblasts [9].
  • Actual rates of macromolecular syntheses have been calculated by taking into account the induced changes of soluble precursor concentrations; sucn normalized rates point out that dichromate induces a sudden blockage of DNA replication, whereas RNA and protein syntheses are secondarily inhibited [9].
  • The observed cytotoxic effects of dichromate are tentatively referred to the oxidation of cell components by hexavalent chromium and thereby to the interaction of reduced trivalent chromium with specific biological ligands on cell membrane and on DNA [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dichromates


Biological context of Dichromates


Anatomical context of Dichromates

  • This study was designed to determine whether ingestion of a single dose of potassium dichromate alone [Cr(VI)] or potassium dichromate fully reduced to Cr(III) with orange juice (prior to ingestion) causes an increase in DPX of circulating leukocytes in humans [20].
  • The present study is an attempt to evaluate the role of EGF in thyroid mediated protection from ARF induced in rats by dichromate [21].
  • While proliferative keratinocytes exposed to Cr(VI) showed a high degree of cytotoxicity to dichromate exposure, the more differentiated cells showed significantly less cytotoxicity but a higher uptake of the metal ion into the cells [22].
  • With the ZN method only 3-5% of the oocysts purified from three human and one experimentally infected lamb dichromate-preserved feces were stained by carbol fuchsin [23].
  • The results support the conclusion that the density of cones in the fovea centralis of the dichromat is comparable to that of the color normal trichomat [24].

Associations of Dichromates with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Dichromates

  • The expression and functional role of HO-1 in rats with renal injury induced by potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) was investigated in this work [30].
  • A detailed investigation of molecular interactions of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) with potassium dichromate has been made [31].
  • In one dichromat with extreme myopia and cupping of the optic disc, the ERG phase lags increased with increasing cone contrast [32].
  • Intolerance of osteosynthesis material: evidence of dichromate contact allergy with concomitant oligoclonal T-cell infiltrate and TH1-type cytokine expression in the peri-implantar tissue [33].
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that potentized (diluted and vigorously shaken) potassium dichromate may help to decrease the amount of stringy tracheal secretions in COPD patients [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dichromates


  1. The beneficial effects of thyroxine on nephrotoxic acute renal failure in the rat. Michael, U.F., Logan, J.L., Meeks, L.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in the lungs of guinea pigs due to potassium dichromate. Miyamoto, T., Ichikawa, K., Kabe, J., Horiuchi, Y. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. The development of anaerobic methods for bacterial mutation assays: aerobic and anaerobic fluctuation tests of human faecal extracts and reference mutagens. Venitt, S., Bosworth, D. Carcinogenesis (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Successful treatment of a patient suffering from severe acute potassium dichromate poisoning with liver transplantation. Stift, A., Friedl, J., Längle, F., Berlakovich, G., Steininger, R., Mühlbacher, F. Transplantation (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Milk tester's dermatitis. Herzog, J., Dunne, J., Aber, R., Claver, M., Marks, J.G. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Determination of betamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide by GC-NCI-MS in excreta of treated animals and development of a fast oxidation procedure for derivatisation of corticosteroids. Courtheyn, D., Vercammen, J., Logghe, M., Seghers, H., De Wasch, K., De Brabander, H. The Analyst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Cyclospora species--a new protozoan pathogen of humans. Ortega, Y.R., Sterling, C.R., Gilman, R.H., Cama, V.A., Díaz, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment-reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors. Wang, Y., Smallwood, P.M., Cowan, M., Blesh, D., Lawler, A., Nathans, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of potassium dichromate on nucleic acid and protein syntheses and on precursor uptake in BHK fibroblasts. Levis, A.G., Buttignol, M., Bianchi, V., Sponza, G. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. An oxygen dependence in chromium mutagenesis. Sugden, K.D., Burris, R.B., Rogers, S.J. Mutat. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Reserpine-induced catecholamine depletion from small cells in rat sympathetic ganglia. Lever, J.D., Presley, R., Santer, R.M., Lu, K.S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. An epidemiological comparison between hand eczema and non-hand eczema. Goh, C.L. Br. J. Dermatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Oral chromium(VI) does not affect the frequency of micronuclei in hematopoietic cells of adult mice and of transplacentally exposed fetuses. De Flora, S., Iltcheva, M., Balansky, R.M. Mutat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Study of persistence and loss of patch test reactions to dichromate and cobalt. Katsarou, A., Baxevanis, C., Armenaka, M., Volonakis, M., Balamotis, A., Papamihail, M. Contact Derm. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating. Bright, P., Burge, P.S., O'Hickey, S.P., Gannon, P.F., Robertson, A.S., Boran, A. Thorax (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Oxidation of cholesterol by a biomimetic oxidant, cetyltrimethylammonium dichromate. Patel, S., Mishra, B.K. J. Org. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium. Blasiak, J., Kowalik, J. Mutat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Concentration-dependent effects of potassium dichromate on the cell cycle. Bakke, O., Jakobsen, K., Eik-Nes, K.B. Cytometry. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Methods in coccidiosis research: separation of oocysts from faeces. Ryley, J.F., Meade, R., Hazelhurst, J., Robinson, T.E. Parasitology (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Measurement of DNA-protein cross-links in human leukocytes following acute ingestion of chromium in drinking water. Kuykendall, J.R., Kerger, B.D., Jarvi, E.J., Corbett, G.E., Paustenbach, D.J. Carcinogenesis (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Modulation of renal EGF in dichromate-induced acute renal failure treated with thyroid hormone. Seiken, G., Grillo, F.G., Schaudies, R.P., Johnson, J.P. Kidney Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Differentiation of normal human keratinocytes influences hexavalent chromium uptake and distribution and the ability of cells to withstand Cr(VI) cytotoxicity. Henshaw, F.N., Morris, B.W., Mac Neil, S. Br. J. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite staining by propidium iodide. Cozon, G., Cannella, D., Biron, F., Piens, M.A., Jeannin, M., Revillard, J.P. Int. J. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. The density of cones in the fovea centralis of the human dichromat. Cicerone, C.M., Nerger, J.L. Vision Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Sensitization with Cr, Ni and Zr salts and allergic type granuloma formation in the guinea pig. Turk, J.L., Parker, D. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry determination of inorganic ions using an ion spray-sheath flow interface. Huggins, T.G., Henion, J.D. Electrophoresis (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. In vivo free radical generation by chromium(VI): an electron spin resonance spin-trapping investigation. Kadiiska, M.B., Xiang, Q.H., Mason, R.P. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential patterns of injury to the proximal tubule of renal cortical slices following in vitro exposure to mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, or hypoxic conditions. Ruegg, C.E., Gandolfi, A.J., Nagle, R.B., Brendel, K. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Microspectrofluorometric study of monoamines in the auricle of the heart of Protopterus aethiopicus. Scheuermann, D.W., Stilman, C., Reinhold, C., De Groodt-Lasseel, M.H. Cell Tissue Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. HO-1 induction attenuates renal damage and oxidative stress induced by K2Cr2O7. Barrera, D., Maldonado, P.D., Medina-Campos, O.N., Hernández-Pando, R., Ibarra-Rubio, M.E., Pedraza-Chaverrí, J., Pedraza-Chaverrrí, J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Stabilization of chromium(V) species in bovine serum albumin adduct. Ananth, K.M., Rajaram, R., Ramasami, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Response phase of the flicker electroretinogram (ERG) is influenced by cone excitation strength. Usui, T., Kremers, J., Sharpe, L.T., Zrenner, E. Vision Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Intolerance of osteosynthesis material: evidence of dichromate contact allergy with concomitant oligoclonal T-cell infiltrate and TH1-type cytokine expression in the peri-implantar tissue. Thomas, P., Summer, B., Sander, C.A., Przybilla, B., Thomas, M., Naumann, T. Allergy (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Influence of potassium dichromate on tracheal secretions in critically ill patients. Frass, M., Dielacher, C., Linkesch, M., Endler, C., Muchitsch, I., Schuster, E., Kaye, A. Chest (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Liver transplantation for potassium dichromate poisoning. Stift, A., Friedl, J., Laengle, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Controlling crystal surface termination by cleavage direction. Plomp, M., van Enckevort, W.J., Vlieg, E. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Chromium(VI) as a novel MRI contrast agent for cerebral white matter: preliminary results in mouse brain in vivo. Watanabe, T., Tammer, R., Boretius, S., Frahm, J., Michaelis, T. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. The innervation of the uterus in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela). A morphological and biochemical study. Greven, H., Schindelmeiser, J., Straub, H. Cell Tissue Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
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