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Chemical Compound Review

sodium azide     sodium azide

Synonyms: Nemazyd, Kazoe, Natriumazid, SMITE, Sodiumazide, ...
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Disease relevance of sodium azide

  • The labeled protein binds specifically to LBRM-33-1A5 (a murine T lymphoma line previously shown to produce IL-2 in response to phytohemagglutinin and IL-1) with an affinity of approximately 0.2-2 X 10(10)/M and, at saturation, to approximately 500 receptors per cell, on intact cells at 8 degrees C in the presence of sodium azide [1].
  • Escherichia coli azi mutants, whose growth is resistant to millimolar concentrations of sodium azide, were among the earliest E. coli mutants isolated [2].
  • The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process [3].
  • On the other hand, the mitochondrial inhibitors antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and 2,4-dinitrophenol inhibited cellular replication similar to the effect of anoxia but did not alter the stimulation of 5-HT uptake [4].
  • Catalase abolished, while sodium azide potentiated, this toxicity, suggesting a key role for H2O2 in the overall mechanism [5].

Psychiatry related information on sodium azide

  • Effects of sodium azide on motor activity, motor coordination, and learning [6].
  • Chronic administration of sodium azide in rats inhibits cytochrome oxidase and produces learning and memory deficits [7].
  • Three models are described in rats which attempt to mimic morphological and behavioural pathology of Alzheimer's dementia; intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ), permanent bilateral carotid artery occlusion (2VO) and brain mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase inhibition by sodium azide [8].
  • Indirect Id stimulation of group-1 cells by Id-I or Id-C, and group-2 cells by Id-I or EPI, was inhibited by anti-HLA-DR,DP(DQ) mAb or sodium azide, and exogenous IL-1 alone did not support this processed, MHC-mediated T-cell stimulation, but live adherent cells did [9].

High impact information on sodium azide


Chemical compound and disease context of sodium azide


Biological context of sodium azide


Anatomical context of sodium azide


Associations of sodium azide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of sodium azide

  • Additionally, each of the gag mutations prevented mitochondrial fragmentation caused by loss of the mitochondrial fusion factor, Fzo1p, or by treatment of cells with sodium azide [34].
  • Possible involvement of a heme-containing oxygen sensor in MP elaboration of growth factors was suggested by the induction of bFGF and PDGF by normoxic MPs exposed to nickel or cobalt, although metabolic inhibitors such as sodium azide were without effect [35].
  • Movement of actin patches is constrained to the asymmetric distribution of the patches in growing cells, and this movement is greatly reduced when metabolic inhibitors such as sodium azide are added [36].
  • In the presence of 0.2% sodium azide, which blocks 80% to 90% of internalization, the recombinant molecule bound with an apparent Kd of 750 pmol/L and 100 to 200 binding sites per cell at 37 degrees C. Asialo-EPO was a more effective competitor than sialated EPO for the available binding sites [37].
  • Sodium azide did not hyperpolarize SUR1(-/-) beta cells [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of sodium azide


  1. Detection and characterization of high affinity plasma membrane receptors for human interleukin 1. Dower, S.K., Kronheim, S.R., March, C.J., Conlon, P.J., Hopp, T.P., Gillis, S., Urdal, D.L. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Azide-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli alter the SecA protein, an azide-sensitive component of the protein export machinery. Oliver, D.B., Cabelli, R.J., Dolan, K.M., Jarosik, G.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions. DeLuca, N., Bzik, D., Person, S., Snipes, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Glycolytic activity and enhancement of serotonin uptake by endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia/anoxia. Lee, S.L., Fanburg, B.L. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Increased cytotoxicity of 3-morpholinosydnonimine to HepG2 cells in the presence of superoxide dismutase. Role of hydrogen peroxide and iron. Gergel, D., Misík, V., Ondrias, K., Cederbaum, A.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of sodium azide on motor activity, motor coordination, and learning. Lalonde, R., Joyal, C.C., Beaudin, S. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Chronic sodium azide treatment decreases membrane-bound protein kinase C activity in the rat hippocampus. Bennett, M.C., Fordyce, D.E., Rose, G.M., Wehner, J.M. Neurobiology of learning and memory. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Rat models of dementia based on reductions in regional glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow and cytochrome oxidase activity. Weinstock, M., Shoham, S. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Two modes of idiotypic stimulation of T lymphocytes from patients with Chagas' disease: correlations with clinical forms of infection. Gazzinelli, R.T., Gazzinelli, G., Cançado, J.R., Cardoso, J.E., Brener, Z., Colley, D.G. Res. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. The participation of alpha-actinin in the capping of cell membrane components. Geiger, B., Singer, S.J. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Phagocytosis: flow cytometric quantitation with fluorescent microspheres. Steinkamp, J.A., Wilson, J.S., Saunders, G.C., Stewart, C.C. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Release of endogenous C3b inactivator from lymphocytes in response to triggering membrane receptors for beta 1H globulin. Lambris, J.D., Dobson, N.J., Ross, G.D. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Oxidative cross-linking of immune complexes by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Jasin, H.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Generation of free radical intermediates from foreign compounds by neutrophil-derived oxidants. Kalyanaraman, B., Sohnle, P.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunoradiometric assay to measure the in vitro penetration of sporozoites of malaria parasites into hepatoma cells. Zavala, F., Hollingdale, M.R., Schwartz, A.L., Nussenzweig, R.S., Nussenzweig, V. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. ATP depletion affects the phosphorylation state, ligand binding, and nuclear transport of the 4 S polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-binding protein in rat hepatoma cells. Bhat, R., Weaver, J.A., Wagner, C., Bodwell, J.E., Bresnick, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of glycogen synthesis and glucose utilization in Escherichia coli during maintenance of the energy charge. Quantitative correlation of changes in the rates of glycogen synthesis and glucose utilization with simultaneous changes in the cellular levels of both glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate. Dietzler, D.N., Leckie, M.P., Sternheim, W.L., Ungar, J.M., Crimmins, D.L., Lewis, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Purification and reconstitution of the F1F0-ATP synthase from alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus OF4. Evidence that the enzyme translocates H+ but not Na+. Hicks, D.B., Krulwich, T.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Basolateral transport of tetraethylammonium by a clone of LLC-PK1 cells. McKinney, T.D., Scheller, M.B., Hosford, M., Lesniak, M.E., Haseley, T.S. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. The mechanism of inhibition of Ran-dependent nuclear transport by cellular ATP depletion. Schwoebel, E.D., Ho, T.H., Moore, M.S. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Dispersal and reformation of acetylcholine receptor clusters of cultured rat myotubes treated with inhibitors of energy metabolism. Bloch, R.J. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. The human salivary peptide histatin 5 exerts its antifungal activity through the formation of reactive oxygen species. Helmerhorst, E.J., Troxler, R.F., Oppenheim, F.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Sodium azide mutagenesis: preferential generation of A.T-->G.C transitions in the barley Ant18 gene. Olsen, O., Wang, X., von Wettstein, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of the 210,000-mol wt microtubule-associated protein in cultured cells of primates. De Brabander, M., Bulinski, J.C., Geuens, G., De Mey, J., Borisy, G.G. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Intracellular distribution and pharmacokinetics of daunorubicin in anthracycline-sensitive and -resistant HL-60 cells. Hindenburg, A.A., Gervasoni, J.E., Krishna, S., Stewart, V.J., Rosado, M., Lutzky, J., Bhalla, K., Baker, M.A., Taub, R.N. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased AMP:ATP ratio and AMP-activated protein kinase activity during cellular senescence linked to reduced HuR function. Wang, W., Yang, X., López de Silanes, I., Carling, D., Gorospe, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Redistribution of the Fc receptor on human blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages induced by immunoglobulin G-sensitized erythrocytes. Romans, D.G., Pinteric, L., Falk, R.E., Dorrington, K.J. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. The properties of arginine transport in vacuolar membrane vesicles of Neurospora crassa. Zerez, C.R., Weiss, R.L., Franklin, C., Bowman, B.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of Ca2+, Mg2+, NaN3, cholinergic agents, and gastrointestinal hormones on the guanylate cyclase from guinea pig gastric mucosa. Griessen, M. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. TAT peptide on the surface of liposomes affords their efficient intracellular delivery even at low temperature and in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. Torchilin, V.P., Rammohan, R., Weissig, V., Levchenko, T.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Characteristics of the formation and membrane transport of 7-hydroxymethotrexate in freshly isolated rabbit hepatocytes. Fabre, G., Fabre, I., Gewirtz, D.A., Goldman, I.D. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Characterization of trimetrexate transport in human lymphoblastoid cells and development of impaired influx as a mechanism of resistance to lipophilic antifolates. Fry, D.W., Besserer, J.A. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Neutrophil-mediated damage to human vascular endothelium. Role of cytokine activation. Westlin, W.F., Gimbrone, M.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Gag3p, an outer membrane protein required for fission of mitochondrial tubules. Fekkes, P., Shepard, K.A., Yaffe, M.P. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Hypoxia-mediated induction of acidic/basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in mononuclear phagocytes stimulates growth of hypoxic endothelial cells. Kuwabara, K., Ogawa, S., Matsumoto, M., Koga, S., Clauss, M., Pinsky, D.J., Lyn, P., Leavy, J., Witte, L., Joseph-Silverstein, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Movement of yeast cortical actin cytoskeleton visualized in vivo. Doyle, T., Botstein, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Binding and internalization of recombinant human erythropoietin in murine erythroid precursor cells. Mufson, R.A., Gesner, T.G. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. Oscillations of membrane potential and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in SUR1(-/-) beta cells. Düfer, M., Haspel, D., Krippeit-Drews, P., Aguilar-Bryan, L., Bryan, J., Drews, G. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Fatal self-administration of sodium azide. Emmett, E.A., Ricking, J.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  40. Activation of guanylate cyclase from rat liver and other tissues by sodium azide. Kimura, H., Mittal, C.K., Murad, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  41. Spin trapping of the azidyl radical in azide/catalase/H2O2 and various azide/peroxidase/H2O2 peroxidizing systems. Kalyanaraman, B., Janzen, E.G., Mason, R.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  42. Monoclonal antibody to single-stranded DNA is a specific and sensitive cellular marker of apoptosis. Frankfurt, O.S., Robb, J.A., Sugarbaker, E.V., Villa, L. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
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