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Chemical Compound Review

myomodulin     (2S)-N-[(1S)-1-[[(1S)-1- [[(1S)-1-[[(1S)-1...

Synonyms: AC1L3X1V, 110570-93-9, Myomoduline A (Aplysia californica)
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Disease relevance of myomodulin

  • Selective modulation of spike duration by serotonin and the neuropeptides, FMRFamide, SCPB, buccalin and myomodulin in different classes of mechanoafferent neurons in the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia [1].

Psychiatry related information on myomodulin


High impact information on myomodulin

  • Motor neuron B15 contains the structurally related small cardioactive peptides A and B, whereas motor neuron B16 contains a different peptide--termed myomodulin [3].
  • Thus it appears that ARC muscle contractions may be regulated by at least three distinct classes of neuromodulators: serotonin, the small cardioactive peptides, and myomodulin [3].
  • In the present study we determined the full amino acid sequence of myomodulin [3].
  • Labeled peptides transported between ganglia included FMRFamide, myomodulin, and pedal peptide [4].
  • In current-clamp experiments, when I(h) is blocked with Cs(+), myomodulin decreases period and increases spike frequency of alternating bursting in synaptically connected oscillator interneurons, suggesting that inhibiting the Na/K pump modulates these burst characteristics [5].

Biological context of myomodulin

  • Finally, these results suggest that the effects of FMRFamide and myomodulin may be mediated by different second-messenger systems [6].
  • Myomodulin-like immunoreactivity is one of the earliest neurotransmitter/neurohormone phenotypes detectable during the development of the locust nervous system [7].
  • FMRFamide and myomodulin reversed these excitatory effects and decreased the duration of action potentials and excitability [6].
  • The glial responses to myomodulin A application persisted in high-Mg2+/low-Ca2+ saline, when chemical synaptic transmission is suppressed, indicating a direct effect of myomodulin A on the glial membrane [8].
  • A peritracheal neuropeptide system in insects: release of myomodulin-like peptides at ecdysis [9].

Anatomical context of myomodulin


Associations of myomodulin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of myomodulin

  • The predicted nlp-1 and nlp-2 neuropeptides have modest similarity to buccalin and myomodulin, respectively [14].
  • These Inka cells release the peptide ecdysis-triggering hormone, which helps elicit ecdysial behavior at the molt, and we show that they are also recognized by the myomodulin (MM) antibody [9].
  • Inka cells also are stained with antisera to myomodulin, FMRFamide and other peptides sharing RXamide carboxyl termini [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of myomodulin


  1. Selective modulation of spike duration by serotonin and the neuropeptides, FMRFamide, SCPB, buccalin and myomodulin in different classes of mechanoafferent neurons in the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia. Rosen, S.C., Susswein, A.J., Cropper, E.C., Weiss, K.R., Kupfermann, I. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Myomodulin gene of Lymnaea: structure, expression, and analysis of neuropeptides. Kellett, E., Perry, S.J., Santama, N., Worster, B.M., Benjamin, P.R., Burke, J.F. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Myomodulin: a bioactive neuropeptide present in an identified cholinergic buccal motor neuron of Aplysia. Cropper, E.C., Tenenbaum, R., Kolks, M.A., Kupfermann, I., Weiss, K.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia. Lloyd, P.E. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Myomodulin increases Ih and inhibits the NA/K pump to modulate bursting in leech heart interneurons. Tobin, A.E., Calabrese, R.L. J. Neurophysiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulatory effects of serotonin, FMRFamide, and myomodulin on the duration of action potentials, excitability, and membrane currents in tail sensory neurons of Aplysia. Critz, S.D., Baxter, D.A., Byrne, J.H. J. Neurophysiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Distribution of myomodulin-like immunoreactivity in the adult and developing ventral nervous system of the locust Schistocerca gregaria. Swales, L.S., Evans, P.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Peptide-mediated glial responses to leydig neuron activity in the leech central nervous system. Schmidt, J., Deitmer, J.W. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A peritracheal neuropeptide system in insects: release of myomodulin-like peptides at ecdysis. O'Brien, M.A., Taghert, P.H. J. Exp. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Neural network controlling feeding in Lymnaea stagnalis: immunocytochemical localization of myomodulin, small cardioactive peptide, buccalin, and FMRFamide-related peptides. Santama, N., Brierley, M., Burke, J.F., Benjamin, P.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Localization of myomodulin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of Aplysia californica. Miller, M.W., Alevizos, A., Cropper, E.C., Vilim, F.S., Karagogeos, D., Kupfermann, I., Weiss, K.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Multiple presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of inhibitory modulation by myomodulin at ARC neuromuscular junctions of Aplysia. Orekhova, I.V., Alexeeva, V., Church, P.J., Weiss, K.R., Brezina, V. J. Neurophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure, bioactivity, and cellular localization of myomodulin B: a novel Aplysia peptide. Cropper, E.C., Vilim, F.S., Alevizos, A., Tenenbaum, R., Kolks, M.A., Rosen, S., Kupfermann, I., Weiss, K.R. Peptides (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Neuropeptide gene families in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Li, C., Nelson, L.S., Kim, K., Nathoo, A., Hart, A.C. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Conservation of ecdysis-triggering hormone signalling in insects. Zitnan, D., Zitnanová, I., Spalovská, I., Takác, P., Park, Y., Adams, M.E. J. Exp. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. Xin, Y., Hurwitz, I., Perrins, R., Evans, C.G., Alexeeva, V., Weiss, K.R., Kupfermann, I. J. Neurophysiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Neural modulation of gut motility by myomodulin peptides and acetylcholine in the snail Lymnaea. Perry, S.J., Straub, V.A., Kemenes, G., Santama, N., Worster, B.M., Burke, J.F., Benjamin, P.R. J. Neurophysiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of myomodulin-related peptides from the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa. Greenberg, M.J., Doble, K.E., Lesser, W., Lee, T.D., Pennell, N.A., Morgan, C.G., Price, D.A. Peptides (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular cloning of myomodulin cDNA, a neuropeptide precursor gene expressed in neuron L10 of Aplysia californica. Lopez, V., Wickham, L., Desgroseillers, L. DNA Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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