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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Lymnaea


Psychiatry related information on Lymnaea

  • Here, we address directly the question whether chemical appetitive conditioning of Lymnaea feeding behavior involves changes in the peripheral and/or central processing of the CS by using extracellular recording techniques to monitor neuronal activity at two stages of the sensory processing pathway [6].
  • The amidated tetrapeptide Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide) plays a key role in the control of male copulation behavior in the basommatophoran pulmonate freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis [7].

High impact information on Lymnaea

  • A 13.1-kilodalton protein, cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor (CRNF), was purified from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis by use of a binding assay on the p75 neurotrophin receptor [8].
  • Instead, CCK/gastrin-specific antibodies might be cross-reacting with Asp-Phe-amides, like the lymnaDFamides, isolated from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis [9].
  • A novel G protein-coupled receptor mediating both vasopressin- and oxytocin-like functions of Lys-conopressin in Lymnaea stagnalis [10].
  • We have cloned a receptor, named LSCPR, for vasopressin-related Lys-conopressin in Lymnaea stagnalis [10].
  • The second repeat and the C-terminal part of the Lymnaea receptor are very similar to regions of a specific class of guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors, the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptors [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lymnaea


Biological context of Lymnaea


Anatomical context of Lymnaea


Associations of Lymnaea with chemical compounds

  • Based on the high homology of genes coding for guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors, we have cloned a gene for the Lymnaea stagnalis 5-HT (5HTlym) receptor [27].
  • The Lymnaea neurophysin and the vertebrate neurophysins share high sequence identity, which includes the conservation of all 14 cysteine residues [22].
  • Upon stimulation with the signal, the neurones increase synthesis and release of monoamines [serotonin (5-HT) in Helisoma and dopamine in Lymnaea] that inhibit larval development acting via ergometrine-sensitive internal receptors [28].
  • Myomodulin gene of Lymnaea: structure, expression, and analysis of neuropeptides [29].
  • The suitability of neurons of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a test system for the neurotoxic side effects of antitumour Vinca alkaloids has been investigated, by studying the process of paracrystal induction by Vinca antitumour agents [30].

Gene context of Lymnaea

  • In this study, we present a novel member of the family of EGF-like growth factors, an EGF homolog from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis (L-EGF), and we demonstrate that this protein has neurotrophic activity [31].
  • Using one of the neurons (the cerebral giant cell) containing Lymnaea CREB1 mRNA, we showed that the injection of a CRE oligonucleotide inhibited a cAMP-induced, long-lasting synaptic plasticity [32].
  • Structural characterization of a Lymnaea putative endoprotease related to human furin [33].
  • LymnaDFamides, a new family of neuropeptides from the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Clue to cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in invertebrates [34]?
  • Synthetic peptides corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal regions inhibit Lymnaea PC2 enzyme activity in extracts of insulin-producing neurons, in which both L7B2 and Lymnaea PC2 are abundantly expressed [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lymnaea


  1. Changes from enkephalin-like to gastrin/cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity in snail neurons. Gesser, B.P., Larsson, L.I. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning of a molluscan G protein alpha subunit of the Gq class which is expressed differentially in identified neurons. Knol, J.C., Ramnatsingh, S., van Kesteren, E.R., van Minnen, J., Planta, R.J., van Heerikhuizen, H., Vreugdenhil, E. Eur. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of orthosilicic acid on the accumulation of trace metals by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Desouky, M.M., McCrohan, C.R., Jugdaohsingh, R., Powell, J.J., White, K.N. Aquat. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of thyrotropin releasing factor on body weight of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Grimm-Jørgensen, Y. J. Exp. Zool. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Nitric oxide mediates metabolism as well as respiratory and cardiac responses to hypoxia in the snail lymnaea stagnalis. Taylor, B.E., Harris, M.B., Burk, M., Smyth, K., Lukowiak, K., Remmers, J.E. J. Exp. Zoolog. Part A Comp. Exp. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Central localization of plasticity involved in appetitive conditioning in Lymnaea. Straub, V.A., Styles, B.J., Ireland, J.S., O'Shea, M., Benjamin, P.R. Learn. Mem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Localization of the neuropeptide APGWamide in gastropod molluscs by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. de Lange, R.P., van Minnen, J. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. CRNF, a molluscan neurotrophic factor that interacts with the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Fainzilber, M., Smit, A.B., Syed, N.I., Wildering, W.C., Hermann, n.u.l.l., van der Schors, R.C., Jiménez, C., Li, K.W., van Minnen, J., Bulloch, A.G., Ibáñez, C.F., Geraerts, W.P. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Phylogeny of the cholecystokinin/gastrin family. Johnsen, A.H. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. A novel G protein-coupled receptor mediating both vasopressin- and oxytocin-like functions of Lys-conopressin in Lymnaea stagnalis. van Kesteren, R.E., Tensen, C.P., Smit, A.B., van Minnen, J., van Soest, P.F., Kits, K.S., Meyerhof, W., Richter, D., van Heerikhuizen, H., Vreugdenhil, E. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. A G protein-coupled receptor with low density lipoprotein-binding motifs suggests a role for lipoproteins in G-linked signal transduction. Tensen, C.P., Van Kesteren, E.R., Planta, R.J., Cox, K.J., Burke, J.F., van Heerikhuizen, H., Vreugdenhil, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Vasopressin/oxytocin-related conopressin induces two separate pacemaker currents in an identified central neuron of Lymnaea stagnalis. van Soest, P.F., Kits, K.S. J. Neurophysiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. GABA-immunoreactive neurones and interactions of GABA with serotonin and FMRFamide in a peripheral sensory ganglion of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Nezlin, L., Voronezhskaya, E. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Morphology and ultrastructure of an identified histamine-containing neuron in the central nervous system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L. Turner, J.D., Powell, B., Cottrell, G.A. J. Neurocytol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant mitigates the reproductive toxicity of fomesafen on the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in outdoor experimental ponds. Jumel, A., Coutellec, M.A., Cravedi, J.P., Lagadic, L. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Histochemical study on the relation between NO-generative neurons and central circuitry for feeding in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Sadamoto, H., Hatakeyama, D., Kojima, S., Fujito, Y., Ito, E. Neurosci. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Structural and functional evolution of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily: vasopressin-related conopressin is the only member present in Lymnaea, and is involved in the control of sexual behavior. Van Kesteren, R.E., Smit, A.B., De Lange, R.P., Kits, K.S., Van Golen, F.A., Van Der Schors, R.C., De With, N.D., Burke, J.F., Geraerts, W.P. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutually exclusive expression of alternatively spliced FMRFamide transcripts in identified neuronal systems of the snail Lymnaea. Bright, K., Kellett, E., Saunders, S.E., Brierley, M., Burke, J.F., Benjamin, P.R. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning and expression of a complementary DNA encoding a molluscan octopamine receptor that couples to chloride channels in HEK293 cells. Gerhardt, C.C., Lodder, H.C., Vincent, M., Bakker, R.A., Planta, R.J., Vreugdenhil, E., Kits, K.S., van Heerikhuizen, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Acrylodan-conjugated cysteine side chains reveal conformational state and ligand site locations of the acetylcholine-binding protein. Hibbs, R.E., Talley, T.T., Taylor, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Channel opening motion of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as suggested by normal mode analysis. Cheng, X., Lu, B., Grant, B., Law, R.J., McCammon, J.A. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Evolution of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily: characterization of a cDNA encoding a vasopressin-related precursor, preproconopressin, from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. van Kesteren, R.E., Smit, A.B., Dirks, R.W., de With, N.D., Geraerts, W.P., Joosse, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. X-ray analysis of Lymnaea stagnalis muscle fibres does not suggest that the sarcolemma is permeable to lanthanum ions. Swales, L.S., Gardner, D.R. J. Cell. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Direct molecular imaging of Lymnaea stagnalis nervous tissue at subcellular spatial resolution by mass spectrometry. Altelaar, A.F., van Minnen, J., Jiménez, C.R., Heeren, R.M., Piersma, S.R. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Nitrite and nitrate levels in individual molluscan neurons: single-cell capillary electrophoresis analysis. Cruz, L., Moroz, L.L., Gillette, R., Sweedler, J.V. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Glutamate is the transmitter for N2v retraction phase interneurons of the Lymnaea feeding system. Brierley, M.J., Yeoman, M.S., Benjamin, P.R. J. Neurophysiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Serotonin receptor cDNA cloned from Lymnaea stagnalis. Sugamori, K.S., Sunahara, R.K., Guan, H.C., Bulloch, A.G., Tensen, C.P., Seeman, P., Niznik, H.B., Van Tol, H.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Apical sensory neurones mediate developmental retardation induced by conspecific environmental stimuli in freshwater pulmonate snails. Voronezhskaya, E.E., Khabarova, M.Y., Nezlin, L.P. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Myomodulin gene of Lymnaea: structure, expression, and analysis of neuropeptides. Kellett, E., Perry, S.J., Santama, N., Worster, B.M., Benjamin, P.R., Burke, J.F. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Snail neurons as a possible model for testing neurotoxic side effects of antitumor agents: paracrystal formation by Vinca alkaloids. Müller, L.J., Moorer-van Delft, C.M., Roubos, E.W. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Neurotrophic actions of a novel molluscan epidermal growth factor. Hermann, P.M., van Kesteren, R.E., Wildering, W.C., Painter, S.D., Reno, J.M., Smith, J.S., Kumar, S.B., Geraerts, W.P., Ericsson, L.H., Smit, A.B., Bulloch, A.G., Nagle, G.T. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. CREB in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis: cloning, gene expression, and function in identifiable neurons of the central nervous system. Sadamoto, H., Sato, H., Kobayashi, S., Murakami, J., Aonuma, H., Ando, H., Fujito, Y., Hamano, K., Awaji, M., Lukowiak, K., Urano, A., Ito, E. J. Neurobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Structural characterization of a Lymnaea putative endoprotease related to human furin. Smit, A.B., Spijker, S., Nagle, G.T., Knock, S.L., Kurosky, A., Geraerts, W.P. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. LymnaDFamides, a new family of neuropeptides from the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Clue to cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in invertebrates? Johnsen, A.H., Rehfeld, J.F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of a molluscan homologue of the neuroendocrine polypeptide 7B2. Spijker, S., Smit, A.B., Martens, G.J., Geraerts, W.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. The lymnaea cardioexcitatory peptide (LyCEP) receptor: a G-protein-coupled receptor for a novel member of the RFamide neuropeptide family. Tensen, C.P., Cox, K.J., Smit, A.B., van der Schors, R.C., Meyerhof, W., Richter, D., Planta, R.J., Hermann, P.M., van Minnen, J., Geraerts, W.P., Knol, J.C., Burke, J.F., Vreugdenhil, E., van Heerikhuizen, H. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Inhibition of acetylcholine responses by intracellular calcium in Lymnaea stagnalis neurones. Chemeris, N.K., Kazachenko, V.N., Kislov, A.N., Kurchikov, A.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1982) [Pubmed]
  38. Inositol uptake and metabolism in molluscan neuronal tissue. Tuersley, M.D., Best, L., Tomlinson, S. J. Neurochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy and tannic acid study of dynamics of neurohaemal and non-synaptic peptide release by the caudodorsal cells of Lymnaea stagnalis. Schmidt, E.D., Roubos, E.W. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
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