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Gene Review

FMRFa  -  FMRFamide

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG2346, DPKQDFMRF-amide, DPKQDFMRFamide, Dmel\CG2346, Drm-FMRF-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Fmrf

  • We also found that some of the PDHLI neurons in the Phormia brain and abdominal ganglion contain colocalized FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity [1].

High impact information on Fmrf


Biological context of Fmrf


Anatomical context of Fmrf


Associations of Fmrf with chemical compounds

  • The structures of DMS, FLT, and SDNFMRFamide differ and each peptide is encoded by a different gene [15].
  • From the present study it appears as if neuropeptides related to substance P, FMRFamide and CCK have roles as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and circulating neurohormones in Drosophila and Calliphora [11].
  • NSCs labeled by the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp), FMRF, and myomodulin form part of the Dchx1 expressing PI domain [16].
  • We discuss evidence for a medulla site of action for a released FMRFamide-like peptide, either from: MeRF2 cells, acting directly on L1 and L2's medulla terminals; or MeRF1 cells, acting indirectly via medulla centrifugal cells C2 and C3 [17].

Regulatory relationships of Fmrf

  • Retrograde Gbb signaling through the Bmp type 2 receptor wishful thinking regulates systemic FMRFa expression in Drosophila [8].

Other interactions of Fmrf

  • Fmrf expression is controlled by a combinatorial code of intrinsic factors and an extrinsic BMP signal [18].
  • TPAEDFMRFamide and DMS each contains a RFamide C-terminus; however, their effects on crop contractions differ, which suggests that unique receptors or different ligand:receptor binding requirements exist for these structurally related peptides [19].
  • These data support the conclusion that the structure of the FMRFamide receptor and activity of the cardioexcitatory FMRFamide neuropeptide are conserved in mosquito [10].
  • Reconstituting this "code," by combined BMP activation and apterous/squeeze misexpression, triggers ectopic FMRFamide expression in peptidergic neurons [2].
  • The short NPF receptor was not activated by any of the other tested arthropod peptides, not even by FMRFamide-related peptides (also ending in RFamide), indicating that the Arg residue at position 4 from the amidated C-terminus appears to be crucial for the response elicited by the sNPFs [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fmrf


  1. Pigment-dispersing hormone-like peptide in the nervous system of the flies Phormia and Drosophila: immunocytochemistry and partial characterization. Nässel, D.R., Shiga, S., Mohrherr, C.J., Rao, K.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Specification of neuropeptide cell identity by the integration of retrograde BMP signaling and a combinatorial transcription factor code. Allan, D.W., St Pierre, S.E., Miguel-Aliaga, I., Thor, S. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila FMRFamide neuropeptide gene. Schneider, L.E., Roberts, M.S., Taghert, P.H. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila neuropeptide gene. Nambu, J.R., Murphy-Erdosh, C., Andrews, P.C., Feistner, G.J., Scheller, R.H. Neuron (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification in Drosophila melanogaster of the invertebrate G protein-coupled FMRFamide receptor. Meeusen, T., Mertens, I., Clynen, E., Baggerman, G., Nichols, R., Nachman, R.J., Huybrechts, R., De Loof, A., Schoofs, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. FMRFamide-related peptides and serotonin regulate Drosophila melanogaster heart rate: Mechanisms and structure requirements. Nichols, R. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila gene that encodes multiple neuropeptides related to Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide). Schneider, L.E., Taghert, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Retrograde Gbb signaling through the Bmp type 2 receptor wishful thinking regulates systemic FMRFa expression in Drosophila. Marqués, G., Haerry, T.E., Crotty, M.L., Xue, M., Zhang, B., O'Connor, M.B. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Organization and expression of the Drosophila FMRFamide-related prohormone gene. Chin, A.C., Reynolds, E.R., Scheller, R.H. DNA Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. The structure of the FMRFamide receptor and activity of the cardioexcitatory neuropeptide are conserved in mosquito. Duttlinger, A., Mispelon, M., Nichols, R. Neuropeptides (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Substance P-, FMRFamide-, and gastrin/cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive neurons in the thoraco-abdominal ganglia of the flies Drosophila and Calliphora. Lundquist, T., Nässel, D.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of tinman, a mesodermal cell fate gene, in axon pathfinding during the development of the transverse nerve in Drosophila. Gorczyca, M.G., Phillis, R.W., Budnik, V. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Altered branching of serotonin-containing neurons in Drosophila mutants unable to synthesize serotonin and dopamine. Budnik, V., Wu, C.F., White, K. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. In situ hybridization analysis of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila. II. Constancy in the cellular pattern of expression during metamorphosis. O'Brien, M.A., Schneider, L.E., Taghert, P.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. The effects of three Drosophila melanogaster myotropins on the frequency of foregut contractions differ. Kaminski, S., Orlowski, E., Berry, K., Nichols, R. J. Neurogenet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Specification and development of the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis, neuroendocrine command centers in the Drosophila brain. de Velasco, B., Erclik, T., Shy, D., Sclafani, J., Lipshitz, H., McInnes, R., Hartenstein, V. Dev. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. The regulation of circadian rhythms in the fly's visual system: involvement of FMRFamide-like neuropeptides and their relationship to pigment dispersing factor in Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. Pyza, E., Meinertzhagen, I.A. Neuropeptides (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Independent roles of the dachshund and eyes absent genes in BMP signaling, axon pathfinding and neuronal specification. Miguel-Aliaga, I., Allan, D.W., Thor, S. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. The different effects of three Drosophila melanogaster dFMRFamide-containing peptides on crop contractions suggest these structurally related peptides do not play redundant functions in gut. Duttlinger, A., Berry, K., Nichols, R. Peptides (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the short neuropeptide F receptor from Drosophila melanogaster. Mertens, I., Meeusen, T., Huybrechts, R., De Loof, A., Schoofs, L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. A genetic and molecular analysis of the 46C chromosomal region surrounding the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila melanogaster. O'Brien, M.A., Roberts, M.S., Taghert, P.H. Genetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. In situ hybridization analysis of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila. I. Restricted expression in embryonic and larval stages. Schneider, L.E., O'Brien, M.A., Taghert, P.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Neuropeptide precursor processing detected by triple immunolabeling. McCormick, J., Lim, I., Nichols, R. Cell Tissue Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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