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Chemical Compound Review

Arechine     N'-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)- N,N-diethyl...

Synonyms: Avloclor, Benaquin, Arequin, Chingamin, Khingamin, ...
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Disease relevance of Chingamin


High impact information on Chingamin

  • Following internalization, 10-15% of the intracellular CSF-1 is rapidly degraded whereas the remaining 85-90% is slowly degraded by a chloroquin-sensitive first order process (t1/2 greater than 3.5 h) [6].
  • This pH gradient was dissipated by the drugs in the rank order MQ greater than CQ greater than Q greater than 7HQ [7].
  • To test this hypothesis, the effects of chloroquine (CQ), quinine (Q) and mefloquine (MQ) on the osmotic stability of human red blood cells exposed to hypotonic solutions have been investigated [8].
  • As an introduction to the Mangochi Malaria Research Project, which examined the efficacy of several antimalarial regimens using CQ or mefloquine in pregnant women in Malawi, we describe the background of knowledge regarding malaria infection in pregnant African women and the important elements of an intervention and prevention strategy [9].
  • When TLR2/4mRNA expression was inhibited by CQ (3 h: 1.037E-4+/-3.299E-6 and 0.026+/-3.462E-3; 6 h: 1.884E-4+/-4.679E-6 and 0.108+/-6.115E-3; 12 h: 2.443E-4+/-7.714E-6 and 0.348+/-6.807E-3; P<0.01), hepatic injuries were relieved, NO concentration in the liver was increased and TNF-alpha concentration was decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chingamin


Biological context of Chingamin

  • CQ-resistant parasites are thought to maintain lower intracellular drug levels by means of an active efflux system, similar to that found in multi-drug resistant cancer cells, despite major differences in both the genetic and biochemical manifestations of drug resistance in the two cell types [16].
  • Lake Mälaren is the water supply and recreation area for more than 1 million people in central Sweden and subject to considerable environmental concern [17].
  • Phosphorus in tributaries to Lake Mälaren, Sweden: analytical fractions, anthropogenic contribution and bioavailability [18].
  • Sediment evidence of early eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of Lake Mälaren, central Sweden [17].
  • Mälaren have suffered from N-deficiency, particularly during the pre-phosphorus reduction years, and nitrogen fixation was indicated [19].

Anatomical context of Chingamin

  • Alternatively, CQ-resistance could be linked to a defective CQ uptake mechanism, possibly an impaired acidification process in the food vacuole of the resistant parasite [16].
  • 1. Heart muscle extracts of northern pike from Lake Malaren in Sweden exhibited two electophoretic types of superoxide dismutase, one of which was identified as the cytoplasmic enzyme (s-SOD) and the other as the mitochondrial form (m-SOD) [20].

Associations of Chingamin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Chingamin

  • The four largest Swedish lakes Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren and Hjälmaren all have a tectonic origin with multidirectional fault fissures, which influence the topography of the bottoms and the creation of subbasins [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chingamin

  • Resistance to quinoline containing drugs, particularly chloroquine (CQ), is a major impediment to the successful chemotherapy and prophylaxis of malaria [16].
  • The EOG is more often disturbed in a long-standing chloroquin-induced retinopathy than in the acute phase of intoxication, the reason being progression from a maculopathy to a tapeto-retinal degeneration [24].


  1. Plasmodium vivax causing pancytopenia after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation in CML. Raina, V., Sharma, A., Gujral, S., Kumar, R. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Prophage induction by 4 antimalaria drugs (daraprim, fansidar, nivaquine and camoquine) and in combination with aflatoxin B1. Fasunon, O.D., Uwaifo, A.O. Mutat. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Chondrodysplasia punctata in siblings and maternal lupus erythematosus. Kozlowski, K., Basel, D., Beighton, P. Clin. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Porphyria variegata: failure of chloroquin treatment. Cramers, M., Jepsen, L.V. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Therapy and drug resistance in malaria. Kulkarni, A.V., Kasturi, L., Amin, A., Mashankar, V. Indian journal of pediatrics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The interaction of 125I-colony-stimulating factor-1 with bone marrow-derived macrophages. Guilbert, L.J., Stanley, E.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Alkalinization of the food vacuole of malaria parasites by quinoline drugs and alkylamines is not correlated with their antimalarial activity. Ginsburg, H., Nissani, E., Krugliak, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of quinoline-containing antimalarials on the erythrocyte membrane and their significance to drug action on Plasmodium falciparum. Ginsburg, H., Krugliak, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. The problem of malaria and malaria control in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Steketee, R.W., Wirima, J.J., Slutsker, L., Heymann, D.L., Breman, J.G. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of nitric oxide in Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression in liver of acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis rats. Zhang, L., Wu, H.S., Chen, Y., Guo, X.J., Wang, L., Wang, C.Y., Zhang, J.H., Tian, Y. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Chloroquine toxicity due to long-term Elestol for osteoarthrosis. Clarke, A.K., Meyrick, R.L. British medical journal. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Corneal changes in Fabry's disease: a clinico-pathologic case report of a heterozygote. Macrae, W.G., Ghosh, M., McCulloch, C. Ophthalmic paediatrics and genetics. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Siquil dystonia nd chloroquin. Amir, M., Khan, K.A., Ahmad, S.H. Indian pediatrics. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Sulphasalazine and Delagil--a comparative study in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis. Hoza, J., Kadlecová, T., Nĕmcová, D., Havelka, S. Acta Universitatis Carolinae. Medica. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in vivo drug sensitivity in Lusaka, Zambia. Blom, G.J., Baboo, K.S., Athale, U.H., van der Werf, T.S. The Central African journal of medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Malaria chemotherapy: resistance to quinoline containing drugs in Plasmodium falciparum. Bray, P.G., Ward, S.A. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Sediment evidence of early eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of Lake Mälaren, central Sweden. Renberg, I., Bindler, R., Bradshaw, E., Emteryd, O., McGowan, S. Ambio. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Phosphorus in tributaries to Lake Mälaren, Sweden: analytical fractions, anthropogenic contribution and bioavailability. Persson, G. Ambio. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Recovery from eutrophication: experiences of reduced phosphorus input to the four largest lakes of Sweden. Wilander, A., Persson, G. Ambio. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Polymorphic tetrameric superoxide dismutase in the pike Esox lucius L. (Pisces; Esocidae). Healy, J.A., Mulcahy, M.F. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Insights into the mechanism of action of ferroquine. Relationship between physicochemical properties and antiplasmodial activity. Biot, C., Taramelli, D., Forfar-Bares, I., Maciejewski, L.A., Boyce, M., Nowogrocki, G., Brocard, J.S., Basilico, N., Olliaro, P., Egan, T.J. Mol. Pharm. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Leflunomide/chloroquin combination therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Rintelen, B., Andel, I., Sautner, J., Leeb, B.F. Clin. Rheumatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Morphometry and hydrology of the four large lakes of Sweden. Kvarnäs, H. Ambio. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. The EOG in rheumatoid arthritis. Pinckers, A., Broekhuyse, R.M. Acta ophthalmologica. (1983) [Pubmed]
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