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Chemical Compound Review

Rubeane     ethanedithioamide

Synonyms: Rubean, Dithioxamide, Dithiooxamide, Rubeanic acid, WLN: SUYZYZUS, ...
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Disease relevance of Rubean


High impact information on Rubean


Biological context of Rubean

  • Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) were demonstrated histochemically by means of conventional stains (rubeanic acid for copper, dithizone for zinc, and cobalt nitrate for calcium) and by autometallography in various tissues of winkles (Littorina littorea) sublethally exposed to either copper or zinc dissolved in sea water [11].

Anatomical context of Rubean


Associations of Rubean with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Rubean

  • Liver copper concentrations were elevated in 31 of 35 biopsies from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and discrimination between normal and elevated liver copper was correct in 32 of the 35 biopsies by staining with rubeanic acid, and 31 of the 35 by staining with rhodanine [19].
  • An improved staining technique for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity using rubeanic acid was used to make a clinical diagnosis in 54 children with constipation [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rubean

  • Endometrial biopsies obtained from 12 young women wearing TCu-200 intrauterine contraceptive devices from six to 12 months were studied by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopes as well as with the use of rubeanic acid stains and x-ray dispersive analysis [9].
  • The microscopical examination of myocardial fragments collected by intracavitary puncture biopsy, using hematoxylin-eosine and the histochemical method with rubeanic acid, showed a medium degree of myocardial damage and the presence of copper deposition in the tissue [20].
  • Microscopic examination of sections from a surgical revision showed necrosis of the fat tissue and massive hyphal invasion of the perirenal fat, which contained semi-crystalline material anisotropic as seen in polarized light and characteristically staining with rubeanic acid [21].


  1. Chalcosis in the human eye. A clinicopathologic study. Rao, N.A., Tso, M.O., Rosenthal, A.R. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Histological demonstration and frequency of intrahepatocytic copper in patients suffering from alcoholic liver disease. Berresford, P.A., Sunter, J.P., Harrison, V., Lesna, M. Histopathology (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Intrahepatocytic copper and copper-binding protein in primary biliary cirrhosis. Discrimination from chronic active hepatitis by means of orcein and rubeanic acid techniques. Lesna, M., Hamlyn, A.N., Watson, A.J. Digestion (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. An improved staining technique for acetylcholinesterase activity using rubeanic acid in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease. Goto, S., Ikeda, K., Toyohara, T. The Japanese journal of surgery. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. A quick microwave histochemical stain for copper. Lecca, S., Pilloni, L., Faa, G. European journal of morphology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Contraction of neuronal branching volume: an anatomic correlate of Pavlovian conditioning. Alkon, D.L., Ikeno, H., Dworkin, J., McPhie, D.L., Olds, J.L., Lederhendler, I., Matzel, L., Schreurs, B.G., Kuzirian, A., Collin, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Histochemical and immunocytochemical evaluation of copper and metallothionein in the liver and kidney of copper-loaded rats. Evering, W.E., Haywood, S., Elmes, M.E., Jasani, B., Trafford, J. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Calcium oxalate crystals in breast biopsies. The missing microcalcifications. Tornos, C., Silva, E., el-Naggar, A., Pritzker, K.P. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Ultrastructural studies on the endometrium of women wearing TCu-200 intrauterine devices by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray dispersive analysis. González-Angulo, A., Aznar-Ramos, R. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Copper associated acute hepatic failure in a dog. Noaker, L.J., Washabau, R.J., Detrisac, C.J., Heldmann, E., Hendrick, M.J. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Autometallographic localization of protein-bound copper and zinc in the common winkle, Littorina littorea: a light microscopical study. Soto, M., Cajaraville, M.P., Angulo, E., Marigómez, I. Histochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemical and morphological studies of liver from eider (Somateria mollissima) in Svalbard with special reference to the distribution of copper. Norheim, G., Borch-Iohnsen, B. J. Comp. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Abnormal hepatic copper storage in a teleost fish (Morone americana). Bunton, T.E., Baksi, S.M., George, S.G., Frazier, J.M. Vet. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Higher mortality risk of lungs carcinoma in vineyard sprayers. Santić, Z., Puvacić, Z., Radović, S., Puvacić, S. Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences / Udruženje basičnih mediciniskih znanosti = Association of Basic Medical Sciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Mapping of neurons participating in the innervation of the body wall of the snail. Ierusalimsky, V.N., Zakharov, I.S. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Cytologic changes of the respiratory tract in vineyard spraying workers. Plamenac, P., Santić, Z., Nikulin, A., Serdarević, H. European journal of respiratory diseases. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Copper(II)-rubeanic acid coprecipitation system for separation-preconcentration of trace metal ions in environmental samples for their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. Soylak, M., Erdogan, N.D. J. Hazard. Mater. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. From 1D strands to extended molecular assemblies in the binary compounds of dithiooxamide and dithiobiurea with crown ethers. Simonov, Y.A., Fonari, M.S., Zaworotko, M.J., Abourahma, H., Lipkowski, J., Ganin, E.V., Yavolovskii, A.A. Org. Biomol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Histological demonstration of copper and copper-associated protein in chronic liver diseases. Jain, S., Scheuer, P.J., Archer, B., Newman, S.P., Sherlock, S. J. Clin. Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Heart involvement in hepatolenticular degeneration. Azevedo, E.M., Scaff, M., Barbosa, E.R., Neto, A.E., Canelas, H.M. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Cure of zygomycosis caused by a lipase-producing Rhizopus rhizopodiformis strain in a renal transplant patient. Nordén, G., Björck, S., Persson, H., Svalander, C., Li, X.G., Edebo, L. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
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