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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Neurons


Psychiatry related information on Neurons


High impact information on Neurons

  • In situ hybridization revealed that KIF1B is expressed abundantly in differentiated nerve cells [11].
  • These findings indicate that cerebral accumulation of PrPSc and its degradation products may play a role in the nerve cell degeneration that occurs in prion-related encephalopathies [12].
  • Nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and purpurin, have been identified as nerve-cell survival molecules [13].
  • Receptors for excitatory amino-acid transmitters on nerve cells fall into two main categories associated with non-selective cationic channels, the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and non-NMDA (kainate and quisqualate) receptors [14].
  • We show that in this system cholinergic agonists activate functional ion channels, that have properties comparable to those exhibited by the peripheral AChRs in vertebrates; thus, for the first time a functional acetylcholine receptor channel has been identified in nerve cells [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Neurons


Biological context of Neurons

  • Using immature cortical neurons and a clonal nerve cell line, it is shown that a decrease in GSH triggers the activation of neuronal 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), which leads to the production of peroxides, the influx of Ca2+, and ultimately to cell death [21].
  • The data presented here show that PC-PLC also is required in oxidative glutamate-induced programmed cell death of both immature cortical neurons and a hippocampal nerve cell line, HT22 [22].
  • It has been difficult to establish whether cyclic AMP-mediated protein phosphorylation in nerve cells plays a specific role in synaptic transmission [23].
  • In this paper, the electrically conductive polymer--oxidized polypyrrole (PP)--has been evaluated for use as a substrate to enhance nerve cell interactions in culture as a first step toward potentially using such polymers to stimulate in vivo nerve regeneration [24].
  • Nerve cells, which were obtained from fetal rats at 18 to 20 days of gestation, were plated at very low density onto polylysine-treated coverslips and were maintained in serum-free medium [25].

Anatomical context of Neurons


Associations of Neurons with chemical compounds

  • GABA and picrotoxinin receptors in clonal nerve cells [31].
  • An initial effect of nerve growth factor on a responsive nerve cell line is to increase intracellular cyclic AMP, which in turn leads to a mobilisation of calcium ions [32].
  • Desensitisation of muscarinic receptor-mediated cyclic GMP formation by cultured nerve cells [33].
  • Asymmetrical displacement currents in nerve cell membrane and effect of internal fluoride [34].
  • These data are compatible with the concept that noradrenaline hyperpolarizes nerve cells by decreasing resting membrane conductances to sodium and potassium ions [35].

Gene context of Neurons

  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) induced hyperactivation of ERK and Akt in enteric nerve cells [36].
  • Since leukemia inhibitory factor functions as a cholinergic differentiation factor in nerve cells, as does ciliary neurotrophic factor, these results suggest that gp130 may also play a role in the nervous system [37].
  • However, a small subpopulation of synapses in any given glutamatergic nerve cell as well as all gamma-aminobutyratergic (GABAergic) synapses are largely independent of Munc13-1 [38].
  • Accordingly, the promoter domain containing HF1 and HF2 is recognized by cerebellum nuclear extracts containing Engrailed and Foxa2 and has regulatory functions in primary cultures of embryonic mesmetencephalic nerve cells [39].
  • A considerable portion of the TB-labeled nerve cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion contained NPY [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Neurons


  1. Multiple influences of a heparin-binding growth factor on neuronal development. Schubert, D., Ling, N., Baird, A. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. The fusion of bone-marrow-derived proinsulin-expressing cells with nerve cells underlies diabetic neuropathy. Terashima, T., Kojima, H., Fujimiya, M., Matsumura, K., Oi, J., Hara, M., Kashiwagi, A., Kimura, H., Yasuda, H., Chan, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase activity in malignant and cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-induced "differentiated" neuroblastoma cells. Kumar, S., Becker, G., Prasad, K.N. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Neurofibrillary tangles, granulovacuolar degeneration, and neuron loss in Down Syndrome: quantitative comparison with Alzheimer dementia. Ball, M.J., Nuttall, K. Ann. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation of prostate cancer cell attachment to matrix by versican. Sakko, A.J., Ricciardelli, C., Mayne, K., Suwiwat, S., LeBaron, R.G., Marshall, V.R., Tilley, W.D., Horsfall, D.J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Radiosensitivity in Huntington's disease: implications for pathogenesis and presymptomatic diagnosis. Moshell, A.N., Tarone, R.E., Barrett, S.F., Robbins, J.H. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Binding of alpha-synuclein to brain vesicles is abolished by familial Parkinson's disease mutation. Jensen, P.H., Nielsen, M.S., Jakes, R., Dotti, C.G., Goedert, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Protein anatomy: C-tail region of human tau protein as a crucial structural element in Alzheimer's paired helical filament formation in vitro. Yanagawa, H., Chung, S.H., Ogawa, Y., Sato, K., Shibata-Seki, T., Masai, J., Ishiguro, K. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. The antinociceptive role of a bulbospinal serotonergic pathway in the rat brain. Liu, M.Y., Su, C.F., Lin, M.T. Pain (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Choline: needed for normal development of memory. Zeisel, S.H. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. KIF1B, a novel microtubule plus end-directed monomeric motor protein for transport of mitochondria. Nangaku, M., Sato-Yoshitake, R., Okada, Y., Noda, Y., Takemura, R., Yamazaki, H., Hirokawa, N. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Neurotoxicity of a prion protein fragment. Forloni, G., Angeretti, N., Chiesa, R., Monzani, E., Salmona, M., Bugiani, O., Tagliavini, F. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Activin is a nerve cell survival molecule. Schubert, D., Kimura, H., LaCorbiere, M., Vaughan, J., Karr, D., Fischer, W.H. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. NMDA receptors activate the arachidonic acid cascade system in striatal neurons. Dumuis, A., Sebben, M., Haynes, L., Pin, J.P., Bockaert, J. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Channel properties of an insect neuronal acetylcholine receptor protein reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers. Hanke, W., Breer, H. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Retrograde tracing of nerve fibers to the rat middle cerebral artery with true blue: colocalization with different peptides. Edvinsson, L., Hara, H., Uddman, R. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Chemical modification of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor of PC-12 nerve cell. Leprince, P. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is increased in astrocytes after kainate-induced epileptic seizures. Ulas, J., Satou, T., Ivins, K.J., Kesslak, J.P., Cotman, C.W., Balázs, R. Glia (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Is the loss of cerebral cortical choline acetyl transferase activity in Alzheimer's disease due to degeneration of ascending cholinergic nerve cells. Mann, D.M., Yates, P.O. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Endogenous kynurenate controls the vulnerability of striatal neurons to quinolinate: Implications for Huntington's disease. Sapko, M.T., Guidetti, P., Yu, P., Tagle, D.A., Pellicciari, R., Schwarcz, R. Exp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. A role for 12-lipoxygenase in nerve cell death caused by glutathione depletion. Li, Y., Maher, P., Schubert, D. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C regulates glutamate-induced nerve cell death. Li, Y., Maher, P., Schubert, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Intracellular injection of t he catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase simulates facilitation of transmitter release underlying behavioral sensitization in Aplysia. Castellucci, V.F., Kandel, E.R., Schwartz, J.H., Wilson, F.D., Nairn, A.C., Greengard, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Stimulation of neurite outgrowth using an electrically conducting polymer. Schmidt, C.E., Shastri, V.R., Vacanti, J.P., Langer, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. An electron microscopic study of the development of axons and dendrites by hippocampal neurons in culture. I. Cells which develop without intercellular contacts. Bartlett, W.P., Banker, G.A. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins and regulation of synaptic function. Greengard, P., Valtorta, F., Czernik, A.J., Benfenati, F. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Electron microscopic study of neuropeptide Y-containing nerve elements of the guinea pig small intestine. Fehér, E., Burnstock, G. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on contractile activity and epithelial transport in the ferret jejunum. Greenwood, B., Doolittle, T., See, N.A., Koch, T.R., Dodds, W.J., Davison, J.S. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Ionizing radiation reduces neurally evoked electrolyte transport in rat ileum through a mast cell-dependent mechanism. MacNaughton, W.K., Leach, K.E., Prud'homme-Lalonde, L., Ho, W., Sharkey, K.A. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Peptide-containing neurons in different regions of the submucous plexus of human sigmoid colon. Crowe, R., Kamm, M.A., Burnstock, G., Lennard-Jones, J.E. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. GABA and picrotoxinin receptors in clonal nerve cells. Napias, C., Olsen, R.W., Schubert, D. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  32. Alterations in the surface properties of cells responsive to nerve growth factor. Schubert, D., LaCorbiere, M., Whitlock, C., Stallcup, W. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  33. Desensitisation of muscarinic receptor-mediated cyclic GMP formation by cultured nerve cells. Richelson, E. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  34. Asymmetrical displacement currents in nerve cell membrane and effect of internal fluoride. Kostyuk, P.G., Krishtal, O.A., Pidoplichko, V.I. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Reversal potential for noradrenaline-induced hyperpolarization of spinal motoneurons. Marshall, K.C., Engberg, I. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  36. Loss of mammalian Sprouty2 leads to enteric neuronal hyperplasia and esophageal achalasia. Taketomi, T., Yoshiga, D., Taniguchi, K., Kobayashi, T., Nonami, A., Kato, R., Sasaki, M., Sasaki, A., Ishibashi, H., Moriyama, M., Nakamura, K., Nishimura, J., Yoshimura, A. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Functional inhibition of hematopoietic and neurotrophic cytokines by blocking the interleukin 6 signal transducer gp130. Taga, T., Narazaki, M., Yasukawa, K., Saito, T., Miki, D., Hamaguchi, M., Davis, S., Shoyab, M., Yancopoulos, G.D., Kishimoto, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Total arrest of spontaneous and evoked synaptic transmission but normal synaptogenesis in the absence of Munc13-mediated vesicle priming. Varoqueaux, F., Sigler, A., Rhee, J.S., Brose, N., Enk, C., Reim, K., Rosenmund, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Joint regulation of the MAP1B promoter by HNF3beta/Foxa2 and Engrailed is the result of a highly conserved mechanism for direct interaction of homeoproteins and Fox transcription factors. Foucher, I., Montesinos, M.L., Volovitch, M., Prochiantz, A., Trembleau, A. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. The significance of tau and alpha-synuclein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases. Goedert, M. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Peptidergic (VIP) innervation of the esophagus. Uddman, R., Alumets, J., Edvinsson, L., Håkanson, R., Sundler, F. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  42. Effects of inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis on the differentiation of cultured rat Schwann cells. Carey, D.J., Rafferty, C.M., Todd, M.S. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  43. Molecular cloning of cDNAs for the nerve-cell specific phosphoprotein, synapsin I. Kilimann, M.W., DeGennaro, L.J. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  44. Characterization of a 4.8kb transcript from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus expressed in Schwannoma cells. Blake, D.J., Love, D.R., Tinsley, J., Morris, G.E., Turley, H., Gatter, K., Dickson, G., Edwards, Y.H., Davies, K.E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
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