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Chemical Compound Review

Orcein     2,8-bis[(2,4-dihydroxy-6- methyl...

Synonyms: Pacein, AC1NTQKG, AG-D-80480, CCG-38289, CPD-12326, ...
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Disease relevance of Orcein

  • Detection of surface and core antigens of hepatitis B virus in the liver of 164 human subjects. A study by immunoperoxidase and orcein staining [1].
  • Orcein-positive liver deposits in Indian childhood cirrhosis [2].
  • Liver orcein stain and viral DNA in duck hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese ducks and experimentally infected Japanese ducklings [3].
  • Both groups exhibited histological cholestasis, intact limiting plates, preservation of hepatocytes and positive orcein stains for copper-binding protein [4].
  • Grades of eosinophilic infiltration of the portal tracts were higher in those livers with higher grades of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, granulomas and florid duct lesion in the portal tracts, and they were lower in those livers with higher grades of bile duct disappearance and orcein-positive granuoles in hepatocytes [5].

High impact information on Orcein

  • 5 in whom a clinical and histological diagnosis of Indian Childhood Cirrhosis was made had massive orcein-staining deposits in liver cells [6].
  • Anti-HBs and orcein staining are equally sensitive and specific for the detection of HBsAg in hepatocytes; discrepant results can be attributed to sampling error of distribution of HBsAg in small liver fragments [1].
  • The three ducks were all from a heavily infected flock in southern China. Serial analyses of viral DNA by Southern blot and spot hybridizations in experimentally infected Japanese ducklings revealed a dissociation or a time gap between the amount of viral DNA in serum and the emergence of orcein positive hepatocytes [3].
  • Eight of 10 animals with all markers had orcein-positive inclusions (Shikata's technique) and 6 had hepatocellular carcinoma associated with acute and chronic hepatic inflammation and, usually, neoplastic nodules in the noncarcinomatous parenchyma [7].
  • Biliary lipids, faecal steroids, and liver function in patients with chronic active hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: significance of hepatic orcein-stained complexes [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Orcein


Biological context of Orcein

  • In the present study, we demonstrate that NTF is a mitogen using two independent methods; counts of orcein-stained mitotic figures and analysis of cell cycle kinetics with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter [10].
  • The NOR's can be selectively stained dark brown by silver solutions leaving the chromosome arms unstained and available for counterstaining with orcein or Giemsa dyes [11].
  • Recombination occurred at a frequency that was higher than that expected from the analysis of orcein-stained meiosis in the F1 [12].
  • The mechanism of function of the sensitizer is not clear, but it is considered that ferric or uranium ions occupy small gaps in the protein molecular structure in the cells before orcein molecules occupy these gaps and that the method does not give any false positive result [13].
  • The metaphases were observed using the nuclear strain aceto-lacto orcein [14].

Anatomical context of Orcein

  • Orcein-stained testis preparations from tra-2 males reveal a spermiogenic defect similar to that associated with dominant male sterile (X; autosome) translocations [15].
  • A complete disappearance of orcein positive material was observed in the superficial dermis of patients suffering from Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus [16].
  • In 19 Orcein-stained corneas, the peripheral density of nuclei was 3632/mm2 +/- 592 (SD) as compared with central counts of 2778 mm2 +/- 284 (SD) [17].
  • Tissue cross-sections (6 microns) obtained from the midpoint of mammary nipples were stained with either Gomori's trichrome stain (to visualize collagen) or orcein (to visualize elastin) [18].
  • However, vitronectin staining also was seen in areas in which no elastic fibers were characterized by the orcein method [19].

Associations of Orcein with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Orcein


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Orcein

  • The surface and core componenets of hepatitis-B virus have not been detected in livers of patients suffering from Indian childhood cirrhosis using procedures such as immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and orcein staining as well as electronmicroscopy [29].
  • The results were correlated with excretory and parenchymal liver function tests and with the presence or absence of orcein-positive copper-protein complexes in histological liver specimens [8].
  • These HBcAg inclusions stain greyish pink with chromotrope aniline blue and are negative for orcein, the periodic acid-Schiff reaction, and the Feulgen reaction for DNA [30].
  • In experiment 1, in vitro-derived embryos (</= 8-cell stage) collected 12-48 h after IVF were separately fixed, stained by orcein, and examined under phase contrast microscopy [31].
  • After 6 months, the prostheses were excised, and the intimal thicknesses of 50 cross sections (orcein staining) of each anastomosis were measured planimetrically [32].


  1. Detection of surface and core antigens of hepatitis B virus in the liver of 164 human subjects. A study by immunoperoxidase and orcein staining. Lamothe, F., Laurecin-Piché, J., Côté, J., Guévin, R., Viallet, A., Richer, G. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Orcein-positive liver deposits in Indian childhood cirrhosis. Portmann, B., Tanner, M.S., Mowat, A.P., Williams, R. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Liver orcein stain and viral DNA in duck hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese ducks and experimentally infected Japanese ducklings. Mori, J., Omata, M., Yokosuka, O., Imazeki, F., Ito, Y., Uchiumi, K., Matsuyama, Y., Ye, W.F., Okuda, K. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Histopathology of early and late human hepatic allograft rejection: evidence of progressive destruction of interlobular bile ducts. Vierling, J.M., Fennell, R.H. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Eosinophilic infiltration of the liver in primary biliary cirrhosis: a morphological study. Terasaki, S., Nakanuma, Y., Yamazaki, M., Unoura, M. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased hepatic copper concentration in Indian childhood cirrhosis. Tanner, M.S., Portmann, B., Mowat, A.P., Williams, R., Pandit, A.N., Mills, C.F., Bremner, I. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Woodchuck hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation of histologic with virologic observations. Popper, H., Shih, J.W., Gerin, J.L., Wong, D.C., Hoyer, B.H., London, W.T., Sly, D.L., Purcell, R.H. Hepatology (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Biliary lipids, faecal steroids, and liver function in patients with chronic active hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: significance of hepatic orcein-stained complexes. Kesäniemi, Y.A., Miettinen, T.A., Salaspuro, M.P. Gut (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Hepatitis-B surface antigen in tumour tissue and non-tumorous liver in black patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Kew, M.C., Ray, M.B., Desmet, V.J., Desmyter, J. Br. J. Cancer (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of mitotic activity and the cell cycle in primary chick muscle cells by neurotransferrin. Popiela, H., Taylor, D., Ellis, S., Beach, R., Festoff, B. J. Cell. Physiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. An improved technique for selective silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions in human chromosomes. Bloom, S.E., Goodpasture, C. Hum. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. The use of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to show transmission of recombinant chromosomes by a partially fertile bigeneric hybrid, Gasteria lutzii x Aloe aristata (Aloaceae), to its progeny. Takahashi, C., Leitch, I.J., Ryan, A., Bennett, M.D., Brandham, P.E. Chromosoma (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Staining method for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) and its mechanism. Senba, M. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. An improved metaphase index assay for detecting thyroid growth stimulators using FRTL-5 thyroid cells cultured on a microtitre plate. Ealey, P.A., Mitchell, S.D., Rowles, P.M., Marshall, N.J. J. Immunol. Methods (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. The dual functions of a sex determination gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Belote, J.M., Baker, B.S. Dev. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation and partial characterization of an elastase-type protease in human vulva fibroblasts: its possible involvement in vulvar elastic tissue destruction of patients with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Godeau, G., Frances, C., Hornebeck, W., Brechemier, D., Robert, L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Direct and indirect determination of nonuniform cell density distribution in human corneal endothelium. Schimmelpfennig, B.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Monoclonal antibodies specific for rat relaxin. VII. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies throughout the second half of pregnancy prevents development of normal mammary nipple morphology and function in rats. Kuenzi, M.J., Sherwood, O.D. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparative distribution of fibronectin and vitronectin in human breast and colon carcinomas. An immunofluorescence study. Loridon-Rosa, B., Vielh, P., Cuadrado, C., Burtin, P. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Monoclonal antibodies specific for rat relaxin. VI. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies throughout the second half of pregnancy disrupts histological changes associated with cervical softening at parturition in rats. Lee, A.B., Hwang, J.J., Haab, L.M., Fields, P.A., Sherwood, O.D. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Ultrastructure and staining properties of aortic microfibrils (oxytalan). Goldfischer, S., Coltoff-Schiller, B., Schwartz, E., Blumenfeld, O.O. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Histological demonstration of copper and copper-associated protein in chronic liver diseases. Jain, S., Scheuer, P.J., Archer, B., Newman, S.P., Sherlock, S. J. Clin. Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. The demonstration of B cells in pancreatic islets with orcein. Callea, F., Desmet, V.J. Histochem. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Vitrification of immature and mature equine and bovine oocytes in an ethylene glycol, ficoll and sucrose solution using open-pulled straws. Hurtt, A.E., Landim-Alvarenga, F., Seidel, G.E., Squires, E.L. Theriogenology (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Both medullasin and human leukocyte elastase are essentially devoid of elastinolytic activity. Aoki, Y., Yamazaki-Hase, T. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Fibrillin immunoreactive fibers constitute a unique network in the human dermis: immunohistochemical comparison of the distributions of fibrillin, vitronectin, amyloid P component, and orcein stainable structures in normal skin and elastosis. Dahlbäck, K., Ljungquist, A., Löfberg, H., Dahlbäck, B., Engvall, E., Sakai, L.Y. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Monoclonal antibodies specific for rat relaxin. X. Endogenous relaxin induces changes in the histological characteristics of the rat vagina during the second half of pregnancy. Zhao, S., Sherwood, O.D. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Histologic growth pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship to orcein (hepatitis B surface antigen)-positive cells in cancer tissue. Nakashima, T., Kojiro, M., Kawano, Y., Shirai, F., Takemoto, N., Tomimatsu, Y., Kawasaki, H., Okuda, K. Hum. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Hepatitis-B virus and Indian childhood cirrhosis. Nayak, N.C., Ramalingaswami, V., Roy, S., Sachdeva, R. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Sanded nuclei in hepatitis B: eosinophilic inclusions in liver cell nuclei due to excess in hepatitis B core antigen formation. Bianchi, L., Gudat, F. Lab. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Morphologic evaluation and actin filament distribution in porcine embryos produced in vitro and in vivo. Wang, W.H., Abeydeera, L.R., Han, Y.M., Prather, R.S., Day, B.N. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Lipoplex gene transfer of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibits the reactive intimal hyperplasia after expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting. Pfeiffer, T., Wallich, M., Sandmann, W., Schrader, J., Gödecke, A. J. Vasc. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
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