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MeSH Review

Cytoplasmic Granules

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Disease relevance of Cytoplasmic Granules


High impact information on Cytoplasmic Granules


Chemical compound and disease context of Cytoplasmic Granules


Biological context of Cytoplasmic Granules


Anatomical context of Cytoplasmic Granules


Associations of Cytoplasmic Granules with chemical compounds


Gene context of Cytoplasmic Granules

  • Trapping of messenger RNA by Fragile X Mental Retardation protein into cytoplasmic granules induces translation repression [28].
  • Here we show that CMA failed to inhibit the cytolytic activity of CD4+ CTL clone and perforin-deficient CD8+ CTL clone, which exclusively mediate Fas-based cytotoxicity, although CMA inhibited acidification and induced drastic vacuolation of cytoplasmic granules in these clones [29].
  • FKN expressed on FLS costimulated T cell-activating signals and amplified proliferation, IFNgamma production, and expulsion of cytoplasmic granules [30].
  • In the normal CNS, merlin is widely expressed in coarse cytoplasmic granules in both glia and neurons, with less pronounced expression in other cells [31].
  • However, after IL-2 activation PFP was concentrated in dense cytoplasmic granules, similar or identical to the situation in CD3-, CD56+ LGLs [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cytoplasmic Granules


  1. Genes encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha and granzyme A are expressed during development of autoimmune diabetes. Held, W., MacDonald, H.R., Weissman, I.L., Hess, M.W., Mueller, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection of tryptase in cytoplasmic granules of basophils in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloid neoplasms. Samorapoompichit, P., Kiener, H.P., Schernthaner, G.H., Jordan, J.H., Agis, H., Wimazal, F., Baghestanian, M., Rezaie-Majd, A., Sperr, W.R., Lechner, K., Valent, P. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Localization of phosphorylated ERK/MAP kinases to mitochondria and autophagosomes in Lewy body diseases. Zhu, J.H., Guo, F., Shelburne, J., Watkins, S., Chu, C.T. Brain Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Perforin is essential for control of ectromelia virus but not related poxviruses in mice. Müllbacher, A., Hla, R.T., Museteanu, C., Simon, M.M. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Ebastine in context. Introduction. Buendia, E. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation and characterization of a serine esterase from cytolytic T cell granules. Young, J.D., Leong, L.G., Liu, C.C., Damiano, A., Wall, D.A., Cohn, Z.A. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Serine esterase in cytolytic T lymphocytes. Pasternack, M.S., Verret, C.R., Liu, M.A., Eisen, H.N. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Properties and localization of DNA methyltransferase in preimplantation mouse embryos: implications for genomic imprinting. Carlson, L.L., Page, A.W., Bestor, T.H. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. The specific recognition by macrophages of CD8+,CD45RO+ T cells undergoing apoptosis: a mechanism for T cell clearance during resolution of viral infections. Akbar, A.N., Savill, J., Gombert, W., Bofill, M., Borthwick, N.J., Whitelaw, F., Grundy, J., Janossy, G., Salmon, M. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Resistance of cytolytic lymphocytes to perforin-mediated killing. Induction of resistance correlates with increase in cytotoxicity. Liu, C.C., Jiang, S., Persechini, P.M., Zychlinsky, A., Kaufmann, Y., Young, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Morphologic variations along the length of the monkey vas deferens. Ramos, A.S. Arch. Androl. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and metabolism of glycogen and poly-betahydroxybutyrate in Nocardia asteroides at different developmental stages. Emeruwa, A.C. Ann. Microbiol. (Paris) (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Granzyme A released upon stimulation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes activates the thrombin receptor on neuronal cells and astrocytes. Suidan, H.S., Bouvier, J., Schaerer, E., Stone, S.R., Monard, D., Tschopp, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential inhibition of the Fas- and granule-mediated cytolysis pathways by the orthopoxvirus cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 and SPI-1 protein. Macen, J.L., Garner, R.S., Musy, P.Y., Brooks, M.A., Turner, P.C., Moyer, R.W., McFadden, G., Bleackley, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of interleukin-3 with or without the c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, on the survival and cytoplasmic granule formation of mouse basophils and mast cells in vitro. Dvorak, A.M., Seder, R.A., Paul, W.E., Morgan, E.S., Galli, S.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Heat shock response: presence and effects in burn patient neutrophils. Rodeberg, D.A., Meyer, J.G., Babcock, G.F. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. An inhibitor specific for the mouse T-cell associated serine proteinase 1 (TSP-1) inhibits the cytolytic potential of cytoplasmic granules but not of intact cytolytic T cells. Simon, M.M., Prester, M., Kramer, M.D., Fruth, U. J. Cell. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Cytotoxic differentiation of mouse gut thymodependent and independent intraepithelial T lymphocytes is induced locally. Correlation between functional assays, presence of perforin and granzyme transcripts, and cytoplasmic granules. Guy-Grand, D., Malassis-Seris, M., Briottet, C., Vassalli, P. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. The fungicidal mechanisms of human monocytes. I. Evidence for myeloperoxidase-linked and myeloperoxidase-independent candidacidal mechanisms. Lehrer, R.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Mast cell clones: a model for the analysis of cellular maturation. Galli, S.J., Dvorak, A.M., Marcum, J.A., Ishizaka, T., Nabel, G., Der Simonian, H., Pyne, K., Goldin, J.M., Rosenberg, R.D., Cantor, H., Dvorak, H.F. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Enteric defensins: antibiotic peptide components of intestinal host defense. Selsted, M.E., Miller, S.I., Henschen, A.H., Ouellette, A.J. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1. Dammermann, A., Merdes, A. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Factor-dependent in vitro growth of human normal bone marrow-derived basophil-like cells. Tadokoro, K., Stadler, B.M., De Weck, A.L. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G stimulate secretion from cultured bovine airway gland serous cells. Sommerhoff, C.P., Nadel, J.A., Basbaum, C.B., Caughey, G.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Liposomes as targets for granule cytolysin from cytotoxic large granular lymphocyte tumors. Blumenthal, R., Millard, P.J., Henkart, M.P., Reynolds, C.W., Henkart, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. The src protein contains multiple domains for specific attachment to membranes. Kaplan, J.M., Varmus, H.E., Bishop, J.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Involvement of lysosomes in the pathogenesis of CAG repeat diseases. Yamada, M., Tsuji, S., Takahashi, H. Ann. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Trapping of messenger RNA by Fragile X Mental Retardation protein into cytoplasmic granules induces translation repression. Mazroui, R., Huot, M.E., Tremblay, S., Filion, C., Labelle, Y., Khandjian, E.W. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Concanamycin A, a powerful tool for characterization and estimation of contribution of perforin- and Fas-based lytic pathways in cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Kataoka, T., Shinohara, N., Takayama, H., Takaku, K., Kondo, S., Yonehara, S., Nagai, K. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. T cell costimulation by fractalkine-expressing synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Sawai, H., Park, Y.W., Roberson, J., Imai, T., Goronzy, J.J., Weyand, C.M. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of NF2-encoded merlin and related ERM family proteins in the human central nervous system. Stemmer-Rachamimov, A.O., Gonzalez-Agosti, C., Xu, L., Burwick, J.A., Beauchamp, R., Pinney, D., Louis, D.N., Ramesh, V. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Relationship of large and small CD3- CD56+ lymphocytes mediating NK-associated activities. Ortaldo, J.R., Winkler-Pickett, R., Kopp, W., Kawasaki, A., Nagashima, K., Okumura, K., Yagita, H., Bach, F.H. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. The Thy-1-bearing cell of murine epidermis. A distinctive leukocyte perhaps related to natural killer cells. Romani, N., Stingl, G., Tschachler, E., Witmer, M.D., Steinman, R.M., Shevach, E.M., Schuler, G. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Human monocytes and neutrophils store transforming growth factor-alpha in a subpopulation of cytoplasmic granules. Calafat, J., Janssen, H., Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M., Zuurbier, A.E., Knol, E.F., Egesten, A. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Prolactin binding and localization in rat mammary tumor mast cells. Hafez, M.M., Costlow, M.E. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Methylation regulates the intracellular protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions of FMRP. Dolzhanskaya, N., Merz, G., Aletta, J.M., Denman, R.B. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of cytoplasmic granules with T cell-associated serine proteinase-1 activity in Ly-2+(CD8+) T lymphocytes responding to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in vivo. Kramer, M.D., Fruth, U., Simon, H.G., Simon, M.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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