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Chemical Compound Review

Coprogen     [(E)-4-[hydroxy-[3-[(2S,5S)- 5-[3-[hydroxy...

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  • In addition to fhueE the genes fhuCDB, tonB and exbB were necessary for iron coprogen uptake [8].
  • Iron(III) chelates of nineteen trihydroxamate siderophores of fungal origin, including ferrichromes, coprogen and triacetylfusarinine C, were separated on a preparative scale with a reversed-phase column using the octadecyl silica gels LRP-1 or LRP-2 as the stationary phase and a water-methanol gradient as the mobile phase [13].
  • The fhuE mutant was sensitive to iron starvation and defective in coprogen-mediated iron uptake [14].
  • Hybrid proteins that contained at least the amino-terminal 516 amino acids of mature FhuE were active as a receptor for coprogen and interacted with the E. coli TonB protein [3].
  • In this paper, we show that chimeric proteins consisting of the central part of FhuA and the N- and C-terminal parts of FhuE (coprogen receptor) or the N- and/or C-terminal parts of FoxA (ferrioxamine B receptor), function as ferrichrome transport proteins [15].


  1. Ferric-coprogen receptor FhuE of Escherichia coli: processing and sequence common to all TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor proteins. Sauer, M., Hantke, K., Braun, V. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Kinetic studies on the specificity of chelate-iron uptake in Aspergillus. Wiebe, C., Winkelmann, G. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Localization of functional domains in the Escherichia coli coprogen receptor FhuE and the Pseudomonas putida ferric-pseudobactin 358 receptor PupA. Bitter, W., van Leeuwen, I.S., de Boer, J., Zomer, H.W., Koster, M.C., Weisbeek, P.J., Tommassen, J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. X-ray crystallographic structures of the Escherichia coli periplasmic protein FhuD bound to hydroxamate-type siderophores and the antibiotic albomycin. Clarke, T.E., Braun, V., Winkelmann, G., Tari, L.W., Vogel, H.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Hereditary coproporphyria. Martásek, P. Semin. Liver Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. FhuF, part of a siderophore-reductase system. Matzanke, B.F., Anemüller, S., Schünemann, V., Trautwein, A.X., Hantke, K. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhancement of coproporphyrinogen III transport into isolated transformed leukocyte mitochondria by ATP. Rebeiz, N., Arkins, S., Kelley, K.W., Rebeiz, C.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of an iron uptake system specific for coprogen and rhodotorulic acid in Escherichia coli K12. Hantke, K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Fusarinines and dimerum acid, mono- and dihydroxamate siderophores from Penicillium chrysogenum, improve iron utilization by strategy I and strategy II plants. Hördt, W., Römheld, V., Winkelmann, G. Biometals (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding human coproporphyrinogen oxidase. Taketani, S., Kohno, H., Furukawa, T., Yoshinaga, T., Tokunaga, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Chiral linear hydroxamates as biomimetic analogues of ferrioxamine and coprogen and their use in probing siderophore-receptor specificity in bacteria and fungi. Berner, I., Yakirevitch, P., Libman, J., Shanzer, A., Winkelmann, G. Biology of metals. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Iron(III) hydroxamate transport across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. Köster, W. Biology of metals. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Separation of ferrichromes and other hydroxamate siderophores of fungal origin by reversed-phase chromatography. Jalal, M.A., Mocharla, R., van der Helm, D. J. Chromatogr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the Azospirillum brasilense fhuE gene. Cui, Y., Tu, R., Guan, Y., Ma, L., Chen, S. Curr. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Conversion of the coprogen transport protein FhuE and the ferrioxamine B transport protein FoxA into ferrichrome transport proteins. Killmann, H., Braun, V. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
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