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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Hylobates

  • TRF activity was present in supernatants (Sn) of Con A- or mixed leukocyte reaction-stimulated murine spleen cells as well as in an IL-2-rich fraction of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocyte Sn and in the Sn of the Gibbon T lymphoma MLA-144 [1].
  • The gibbon lymphosarcoma cells releasing gibbon ape leukemia virus were used in a screening study of sera from healthy humans [2].
  • The levels of mRNA encoding the receptors of the feline retroviruses, RD114 and feline leukemia virus type C (FeLV-C), were significantly higher than the level of gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) receptor mRNA in cells enriched for human HSCs (Lin- CD34+ CD38-) [3].
  • We expressed a chimeric protein (called His-ILFAC) consisting of the mature coding portion of gibbon interleukin-3 (IL-3) and full-length FAC in Escherichia coli [4].
  • STA was detected in F2/F7, CCRF-CEM, Molt-4, and CCRF-HSB (four human T ALL cell lines), in JURKAT (a human T cell leukemia line), and in MLA144 (a Gibbon T cell lymphoma line) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Hylobates

  • This study examined the predictive validity of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (Spitzer, Williams, Gibbon, & First, 1990) based substance dependence diagnoses (i.e., cocaine, sedative, and alcohol) for 518 opioid-dependent outpatients entering methadone maintenance [6].

High impact information on Hylobates

  • A cDNA clone encoding a novel hematopoietic growth factor activity produced by a gibbon T cell line has been identified using a mammalian cell expression cloning system [7].
  • The recombinant gibbon IL-3 protein proved to have multipotent colony stimulating activity when tested with normal human bone marrow cells, proving that this primate hematopoietin is not only structurally but also functionally related to murine IL-3 [7].
  • Antigens related to the major structural protein (p30) of type C viruses isolated from a woolly monkey and a gibbon ape were found in peripheral white blood cells from five patients with acute leukemia [8].
  • Structure-function relationships of interleukin-3. An analysis based on the function and binding characteristics of a series of interspecies chimera of gibbon and murine interleukin-3 [9].
  • Stimulation of human hematopoietic colony formation by recombinant gibbon multi-colony-stimulating factor or interleukin 3 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hylobates

  • It was previously shown that glioma cells are efficiently killed when they express a gene coding for a hyperfusogenic mutant of the gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein (GALV.fus) [11].

Biological context of Hylobates


Anatomical context of Hylobates

  • Hominoid apes (gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon), Old World monkeys (rhesus, cynomolgus), New World monkeys (owl, cebus), and a prosimian (lemur) express involucrin-like proteins in cultured keratinocytes [17].
  • Supernatants of COS-1 cells transfected with gibbon cDNA encoding interleukin 3 (IL-3) with homology to sequences for human IL-3 were tested for ability to promote growth of various human hemopoietic progenitors [18].
  • Synthesis of biologically active interleukin 2 by Xenopus oocytes in response to poly(A)-RNA from a gibbon T-cell line [19].
  • Pseudotyping of the MFG-FVIIIdeltaB retroviral vectors with the gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GALV-env) resulted in significantly higher transduction efficiencies (100 +/- 20%) and FVIII expression levels (390 +/- 10 ng FVIII/10[6] cells per 24 hr) in transduced human BM stromal cells than with standard amphotropic vectors [20].
  • Murine IL-3 did not support colony growth from human megakaryocyte progenitors and gibbon rIL-3 showed no activity in stimulating acetylcholinesterase production by murine bone marrow cells [21].

Associations of Hylobates with chemical compounds

  • However, the enzyme from gibbon virus-producing cells was isolated partially in the HMW form; this form was converted completely to the LMW form by treatment with 0.5 M KC1 and 0.5% Triton X-100 and could be re-converted to the HMW form by lowering the KC1 and Triton X-100 concentrations [22].
  • Improved transfer of the leukocyte integrin CD18 subunit into hematopoietic cell lines by using retroviral vectors having a gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope [23].
  • In a homologous competition immunoassay for the woolly viral glycoprotein, the woolly virus was readily distingusihed from otherwise colsely related viruses of gibbon apes [24].
  • A polylysine extended gibbon IL-2 (IL-2-L) was constructed by the addition of a lysine-rich oligopeptide, Gly3-(Lys-Lys-Asp)3-Leu-Glu to the C terminus of gibbon IL-2 by using rDNA technology [25].
  • The protein-phosphate bond in this polypeptide of several viruses is of the phosphoserine variety excepting gibbon ape virus, which contains both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine [26].

Gene context of Hylobates

  • The genetic sequences encoding the gibbon and human interleukin 3 (IL 3) proteins were molecularly cloned [27].
  • These studies revealed that the GPA gene was present in all primates studied, and the GPB gene was present in pygmy chimpanzee, chimpanzee, and gorilla, but absent from orangutan and gibbon [28].
  • This suggested that the human p75 chain was responsible for the preference for human IL 2 shown by the human high-affinity receptor, which was confirmed by performing a binding experiment using gibbon MLA 144 cells, expressing only p75 [29].
  • By contrast, the gibbon leukemia cell line MLA 144 expresses only high-affinity receptors for IL4 [30].
  • Among these five dimorphisms, only RANTES G-403A is observed in one of the eight primate species studied here (gibbon) [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hylobates

  • The gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) and the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) infect human cells via specific receptors, Pit1 and Pit2, respectively. mRNA levels of these receptors were determined by Northern analysis and for Pit2 in addition by quantitative RT-PCR [32].
  • Human clinical trials to date have used Moloney leukemia virus-based amphotropic and gibbon ape leukemia virus-based envelopes in stable retroviral packaging lines [33].
  • Sequence analysis of Mus dunni endogenous virus reveals a hybrid VL30/gibbon ape leukemia virus-like structure and a distinct envelope [34].
  • In the other examined primates the NOR-bearing autosomes could be detected by in situ hybridization with (GACA)4, and a major concentration of the GACA simple repeats could be observed on the Y chromosome in the gibbon and mouse: the hybridization site in the gibbon Y chromosome coincides particularly with the silver-stainable NOR [35].
  • Additionally, PRINS labelling with a telomere primer revealed that agile gibbons have telomeric DNA only at chromosome ends where there is no C-band (non-telomeric heterochromatin), whereas the telomeric DNA of siamangs is located in the terminal C-banded regions (telomeric heterochromatin) [36].


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  15. Two independent mutational events in the loss of urate oxidase during hominoid evolution. Wu, X.W., Muzny, D.M., Lee, C.C., Caskey, C.T. J. Mol. Evol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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