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Chemical Compound Review

PHTHALAZINE     phthalazine

Synonyms: SureCN8266, SureCN324440, ACMC-1AZH0, CCRIS 6894, P38706_ALDRICH, ...
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Disease relevance of phthalazine


High impact information on phthalazine


Biological context of phthalazine


Anatomical context of phthalazine


Associations of phthalazine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of phthalazine

  • Arylphthalazines: identification of a new phthalazine chemotype as inhibitors of VEGFR kinase [14].
  • Aldehyde oxidase activity (assessed by the 1-hydroxylation of phthalazine) declined to approximately 20% of the initial value by 48 hr in culture [15].
  • This communication describes the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a novel and potent series of phthalazine phosphodiesterase type (IV) (PDE4) inhibitors [16].
  • Phthalazine PDE4 inhibitors. Part 3: the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of derivatives with a hydrogen bond acceptor [16].
  • For the phthalazine derivative the yield pressure increased as particle size decreased; however the SRS index reduced from 41% to zero, indicating that the deformation mechanism was changing from plastic flow to brittle behaviour [17].


  1. Evaluation of apoptosis-induction by newly synthesized phthalazine derivatives in breast cancer cell lines. Arif, J.M., Kunhi, M., Bekhit, A.A., Subramanian, M.P., Al-Hussein, K., Aboul-Enein, H.Y., Al-Khodairy, F.M. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. PTK787/ZK 222584, a novel and potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, impairs vascular endothelial growth factor-induced responses and tumor growth after oral administration. Wood, J.M., Bold, G., Buchdunger, E., Cozens, R., Ferrari, S., Frei, J., Hofmann, F., Mestan, J., Mett, H., O'Reilly, T., Persohn, E., Rösel, J., Schnell, C., Stover, D., Theuer, A., Towbin, H., Wenger, F., Woods-Cook, K., Menrad, A., Siemeister, G., Schirner, M., Thierauch, K.H., Schneider, M.R., Drevs, J., Martiny-Baron, G., Totzke, F. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. 4-Benzylamino-1-chloro-6-substituted phthalazines: synthesis and inhibitory activity toward phosphodiesterase 5. Watanabe, N., Kabasawa, Y., Takase, Y., Matsukura, M., Miyazaki, K., Ishihara, H., Kodama, K., Adachi, H. J. Med. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. 1-substituted phthalazines as probes of the substrate-binding site of mammalian molybdenum hydroxylases. Beedham, C., Bruce, S.E., Critchley, D.J., Rance, D.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Phthalazine-based dinucleating ligands afford dinuclear centers often encountered in metalloenzyme active sites. Barrios, A.M., Lippard, S.J. Inorganic chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Metabolism of hydralazine by activated leukocytes: implications for hydralazine induced lupus. Hofstra, A.H., Matassa, L.C., Uetrecht, J.P. J. Rheumatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. The oxidative metabolism of hydralazine by rat liver microsomes. LaCagnin, L.B., Colby, H.D., O'Donnell, J.P. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Laboratory assessment of environmental impact of phthalazine. Lande, S.S., Elnabarawy, M.T., Reiner, E.A., Welter, A.N., Robideau, R.R. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Cynomolgus monkey liver aldehyde oxidase: extremely high oxidase activity and an attempt at purification. Sugihara, K., Katsuma, Y., Kitamura, S., Ohta, S., Fujitani, M., Shintani, H. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The in vitro metabolism of hydralazine. Streeter, A.J., Timbrell, J.A. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Quantitative study of the structural requirements of phthalazine/quinazoline derivatives for interaction with human liver aldehyde oxidase. Ghafourian, T., Rashidi, M.R. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Metabolism of zaleplon by human liver: evidence for involvement of aldehyde oxidase. Lake, B.G., Ball, S.E., Kao, J., Renwick, A.B., Price, R.J., Scatina, J.A. Xenobiotica (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Enzymatic oxidation of phthalazine with guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase and liver slices: inhibition by isovanillin. Panoutsopoulos, G.I., Beedham, C. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Arylphthalazines: identification of a new phthalazine chemotype as inhibitors of VEGFR kinase. Piatnitski, E.L., Duncton, M.A., Kiselyov, A.S., Katoch-Rouse, R., Sherman, D., Milligan, D.L., Balagtas, C., Wong, W.C., Kawakami, J., Doody, J.F. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Activities of cytosolic and microsomal drug oxidases of rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Sherratt, A.J., Damani, L.A. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Phthalazine PDE4 inhibitors. Part 3: the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of derivatives with a hydrogen bond acceptor. Napoletano, M., Norcini, G., Pellacini, F., Marchini, F., Morazzoni, G., Fattori, R., Ferlenga, P., Pradella, L. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of the relationship between punch velocity and particle size on the compaction behaviour of materials with varying deformation mechanisms. Roberts, R.J., Rowe, R.C. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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