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Gene Review

gtfC  -  glucosyltransferase-SI

Streptococcus mutans UA159

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Disease relevance of gtfC


High impact information on gtfC

  • The DNA fragment coding for GTF activity from one S. mutans colonization-defective mutant, SP2, was isolated and shown also to have undergone recombination between the gtfB and gtfC genes, resulting in reduced GTF activity [1].
  • In the present study, we investigated the influence of apigenin on gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD expression in S. mutans UA159 [4].
  • The second bacitracin resistance locus comprised four mbr genes (mbrA, mbrB, mbrC, and mbrD) and was located immediately downstream from gtfC, which encodes the water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing enzyme [5].
  • Inactivation of the gbpA gene of Streptococcus mutans alters structural and functional aspects of plaque biofilm which are compensated by recombination of the gtfB and gtfC genes [6].
  • The rates were consistent with the frequency of spontaneous gene fusions between gtfB and gtfC, suggesting that the spontaneous recombinant organisms were selected in the presence of sucrose [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of gtfC


Biological context of gtfC


Associations of gtfC with chemical compounds

  • In addition, no effect of mannitol on gtfC expression at early exponential phase was observed [13].
  • Similar to gtfB, the expression of gtfC was also induced with the presence of all the tested carbohydrates except for xylitol at early growth and glucose and fructose at late exponential phase [13].
  • Insertional inactivation of the gtfC gene with a streptococcal erythromycin resistance gene fragment followed by transformation of strain GS-5 suggested that the gtfC gene product was required for sucrose-dependent colonization in vitro [8].
  • More specifically, the transcription and translational expression of gtfD but not gtfB and gtfC was specifically induced by copper ion (Cu(2+)) [14].
  • A gtfC deletion mutant of S. mutans UA159 grew poorly in biofilms on a polystyrene surface in Todd-Hewitt medium containing sucrose, but biofilm formation in the semi-defined fluid universal medium (FUM) was not affected [15].

Other interactions of gtfC

  • Based on real-time PCR, Smuvic+ showed increased gtfBCD, gbpB, and ftf expression, while a recombinant VicR fusion protein was shown to bind the promoter regions of the gtfB, gtfC, and ftf genes [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gtfC


  1. Molecular basis for the spontaneous generation of colonization-defective mutants of Streptococcus mutans. Ueda, S., Kuramitsu, H.K. Mol. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the glucosyltransferase C gene (gtfC) from Streptococcus mutans LM7. Pucci, M.J., Jones, K.R., Kuramitsu, H.K., Macrina, F.L. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Production, characterization, and application of monoclonal antibodies which distinguish three glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans. Fukushima, K., Okada, T., Ochiai, K. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Influence of apigenin on gtf gene expression in Streptococcus mutans UA159. Koo, H., Seils, J., Abranches, J., Burne, R.A., Bowen, W.H., Quivey, R.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Genes involved in bacitracin resistance in Streptococcus mutans. Tsuda, H., Yamashita, Y., Shibata, Y., Nakano, Y., Koga, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Inactivation of the gbpA gene of Streptococcus mutans alters structural and functional aspects of plaque biofilm which are compensated by recombination of the gtfB and gtfC genes. Hazlett, K.R., Mazurkiewicz, J.E., Banas, J.A. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Recombination between gtfB and gtfC is required for survival of a dTDP-rhamnose synthesis-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sucrose. Yamashita, Y., Tomihisa, K., Nakano, Y., Shimazaki, Y., Oho, T., Koga, T. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of the Streptococcus mutans gtfC gene, coding for synthesis of both soluble and insoluble glucans. Hanada, N., Kuramitsu, H.K. Infect. Immun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and characterization of the Streptococcus mutans gtfD gene, coding for primer-dependent soluble glucan synthesis. Hanada, N., Kuramitsu, H.K. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans V403 glucosyltransferase and fructosyltransferase mutants constructed by allelic exchange. Munro, C., Michalek, S.M., Macrina, F.L. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of the glucosyltransferase (gtfBC) operon by CovR in Streptococcus mutans. Biswas, S., Biswas, I. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence analysis of the gtfC gene from Streptococcus mutans GS-5. Ueda, S., Shiroza, T., Kuramitsu, H.K. Gene (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential expression profiles of Streptococcus mutans ftf, gtf and vicR genes in the presence of dietary carbohydrates at early and late exponential growth phases. Shemesh, M., Tam, A., Feldman, M., Steinberg, D. Carbohydr. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential regulation of Streptococcus mutans gtfBCD genes in response to copper ions. Chen, P.M., Chen, J.Y., Chia, J.S. Arch. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Deletion of gtfC of Streptococcus mutans has no influence on the composition of a mixed-species in vitro biofilm model of supragingival plaque. Van Der Ploeg, J.R., Guggenheim, B. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. A VicRK signal transduction system in Streptococcus mutans affects gtfBCD, gbpB, and ftf expression, biofilm formation, and genetic competence development. Senadheera, M.D., Guggenheim, B., Spatafora, G.A., Huang, Y.C., Choi, J., Hung, D.C., Treglown, J.S., Goodman, S.D., Ellen, R.P., Cvitkovitch, D.G. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation: utilization of a gtfB promoter-green fluorescent protein (PgtfB::gfp) construct to monitor development. Yoshida, A., Kuramitsu, H.K. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
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