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Gene Review

papG  -  PapG protein

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of papG


High impact information on papG

  • We suggest that the Class I papG-allele of strain J96 is a novel acquisition possibly introduced via horizontal gene transfer into one of the two P pili gene clusters carried by this strain [5].
  • We examined the role in bladder colonization of the E. coli 83972 genes papG and fimH, which respectively encode P and type 1 receptor-specific fimbrial adhesins [6].
  • Most of the canine urine isolates were from (virulence-associated) E. coli phylogenetic groups B2 or D, expressed papG allele III, and exhibited numerous other putative virulence genes that are characteristic of human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) [7].
  • According to serotyping, virulence genotyping, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, over 50% of papG-positive fecal E. coli could be directly correlated with specific human clinical isolates from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, bacteremia, or meningitis, including archetypal human ExPEC strains 536, CP9, and RS218 [8].
  • On the other hand, strains without any papG alleles were found significantly more often in infants with major urinary tract abnormalities (11 of 34 vs. 17 of 119 infants; P=.016) [9].

Biological context of papG


Associations of papG with chemical compounds

  • Nevertheless, genes for P fimbriae, the class II variety of papG adhesin, and aerobactin were significantly more common among resident than transient strains, as previously observed in a Swedish study [14].
  • The protein constituting the distal part of the pili structure, papG, interacts with glycan receptors on the host cell [13].
  • Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes with poor blood glucose control, immunosuppression, urinary tract obstruction, and papG class II allele were independently associated with upper UTI [4].

Other interactions of papG

  • PCR detected the virulence genes papG, aer, and cnf significantly more frequently in mixed intestinal samples than in the corresponding predominant strains, evidence that traditional methods are suboptimal for detecting colonization with uropathogens [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of papG


  1. A prospective study of asymptomatic bacteriuria in sexually active young women. Hooton, T.M., Scholes, D., Stapleton, A.E., Roberts, P.L., Winter, C., Gupta, K., Samadpour, M., Stamm, W.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli in acute bacterial prostatitis. Mitsumori, K., Terai, A., Yamamoto, S., Ishitoya, S., Yoshida, O. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Distribution of papG alleles among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from different species. Féria, C., Machado, J., Duarte Correia, J., Gonçalves, J., Gaastra, W. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Roles of host and bacterial virulence factors in the development of upper urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli. Tseng, C.C., Wu, J.J., Liu, H.L., Sung, J.M., Huang, J.J. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Horizontal gene transfer of the Escherichia coli pap and prs pili operons as a mechanism for the development of tissue-specific adhesive properties. Marklund, B.I., Tennent, J.M., Garcia, E., Hamers, A., Båga, M., Lindberg, F., Gaastra, W., Normark, S. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of type 1 fimbria- and P fimbria-specific adherence in colonization of the neurogenic human bladder by Escherichia coli. Hull, R.A., Donovan, W.H., Del Terzo, M., Stewart, C., Rogers, M., Darouiche, R.O. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Phylogenetic and pathotypic similarities between Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infections in dogs and extraintestinal infections in humans. Johnson, J.R., Stell, A.L., Delavari, P., Murray, A.C., Kuskowski, M., Gaastra, W. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Canine feces as a reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Johnson, J.R., Stell, A.L., Delavari, P. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Predominance of class II papG allele of Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis in infants with normal urinary tract anatomy. Jantunen, M.E., Siitonen, A., Koskimies, O., Wikström, S., Kärkkäinen, U., Salo, E., Saxén, H. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Epidemiological study of pap genes among diarrheagenic or septicemic Escherichia coli strains producing CS31A and F17 adhesins and characterization of Pap(31A) fimbriae. Bertin, Y., Girardeau, J.P., Darfeuille-Michaud, A., Martin, C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Pap, papG and prsG DNA sequences in Escherichia coli from the fecal flora and the urinary tract. Johanson, I.M., Plos, K., Marklund, B.I., Svanborg, C. Microb. Pathog. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Diversity of hemagglutination phenotypes among P-fimbriated wild-type strains of Escherichia coli in relation to papG allele repertoire. Johnson, J.R., Brown, J.J., Ahmed, P. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Carbohydrate specificity of the Escherichia coli P-pilus papG protein is mediated by its N-terminal part. Hansson, L., Wallbrandt, P., Andersson, J.O., Byström, M., Bäckman, A., Carlstein, A., Enquist, K., Lönn, H., Otter, C., Strömqvist, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. P fimbriae and aerobactin as intestinal colonization factors for Escherichia coli in Pakistani infants. Nowrouzian, F., Wold, A.E., Adlerberth, I. Epidemiol. Infect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Colonization with and acquisition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli as revealed by polymerase chain reaction-based detection. Johnson, J.R., Brown, J.J., Carlino, U.B., Russo, T.A. J. Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Multiple insertional events, restricted by the genetic background, have led to acquisition of pathogenicity island IIJ96-like domains among Escherichia coli strains of different clinical origins. Bidet, P., Bonacorsi, S., Clermont, O., De Montille, C., Brahimi, N., Bingen, E. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
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