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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Bacteremia


Psychiatry related information on Bacteremia

  • Using LR, the following were found to be highly associated with VRE bacteremia: history of AIDS, positive HIV status, or drug abuse (OR 9.58); prior exposure with parenteral vancomycin (OR 8.37); and liver transplant history (OR 6. 75) [5].

High impact information on Bacteremia


Chemical compound and disease context of Bacteremia

  • Taken together, these findings are consistent with activation of C3 and the terminal complement sequence, C5-C9, occurring primarily by the properdin pathway, in patients with gram-negative bacteremia eventuating in shock [11].
  • We conclude that the combination of vancomycin, ticarcillin, and amikacin is more effective than ticarcillin-clavulanate and amikacin as empirical antibiotic therapy in clinical settings in which gram-positive bacteremias are a serious problem [7].
  • Mean levels of the classical components C1, C4, and C2 in bacteremic patients in whom shock subsequently developed did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) from those of patients with uncomplicated bacteremia [11].
  • In studying the role of glucan as a mediator of antibacterial activity, we attempted to ascertain the ability of glucan to modify the mortality of mice with experimentally induced Gram-positive bacteremia, and to enhance antibacterial defenses in rats as denoted by serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity [12].
  • Bacteremia developed in both patients and they recovered only after the cessation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole administration and institution of therapy with penicillin G potassium or vancomycin hydrochloride plus streptomycin sulfate [13].
  • HVISA bacteremia was significantly associated with prolonged bacteremia duration, greater rates of complications, and emergence of rifampin resistance, compared with MRSA bacteremia [14].

Biological context of Bacteremia


Anatomical context of Bacteremia


Gene context of Bacteremia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bacteremia


  1. Nosocomial meningitis and bacteremia due to contaminated amphotericin B. Sarubbi, F.A., Wilson, B., Lee, M., Brokopp, C. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Plasma tumor necrosis factor levels in patients with presumed sepsis. Results in those treated with antilipid A antibody vs placebo. de Groote, M.A., Martin, M.A., Densen, P., Pfaller, M.A., Wenzel, R.P. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. The contact system contributes to hypotension but not disseminated intravascular coagulation in lethal bacteremia. In vivo use of a monoclonal anti-factor XII antibody to block contact activation in baboons. Pixley, R.A., De La Cadena, R., Page, J.D., Kaufman, N., Wyshock, E.G., Chang, A., Taylor, F.B., Colman, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Release of angiotensin converting enzyme by the lung after Pseudomonas bacteremia in sheep. Gorin, A.B., Hasagawa, G., Hollinger, M., Sperry, J., Zuckerman, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. A nationwide, multicenter, case-control study comparing risk factors, treatment, and outcome for vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible enterococcal bacteremia. Bhavnani, S.M., Drake, J.A., Forrest, A., Deinhart, J.A., Jones, R.N., Biedenbach, D.J., Ballow, C.H. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A comparison of two regimens for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS: rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin versus rifampin, ethambutol, clofazimine, and ciprofloxacin. Canadian HIV Trials Network Protocol 010 Study Group. Shafran, S.D., Singer, J., Zarowny, D.P., Phillips, P., Salit, I., Walmsley, S.L., Fong, I.W., Gill, M.J., Rachlis, A.R., Lalonde, R.G., Fanning, M.M., Tsoukas, C.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Vancomycin, ticarcillin, and amikacin compared with ticarcillin-clavulanate and amikacin in the empirical treatment of febrile, neutropenic children with cancer. Shenep, J.L., Hughes, W.T., Roberson, P.K., Blankenship, K.R., Baker, D.K., Meyer, W.H., Gigliotti, F., Sixbey, J.W., Santana, V.M., Feldman, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Treatment of gram-negative bacteremia and shock with human antiserum to a mutant Escherichia coli. Ziegler, E.J., McCutchan, J.A., Fierer, J., Glauser, M.P., Sadoff, J.C., Douglas, H., Braude, A.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. A comparison of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus nystatin with gentamicin plus nystatin in the prevention of infections in acute leukemia. Wade, J.C., Schimpff, S.C., Hargadon, M.T., Fortner, C.L., Young, V.M., Wiernik, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Emergence of multiply resistant pneumococci. Jacobs, M.R., Koornhof, H.J., Robins-Browne, R.M., Stevenson, C.M., Vermaak, Z.A., Freiman, I., Miller, G.B., Witcomb, M.A., Isaäcson, M., Ward, J.I., Austrian, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Activation of the properdin pathway of complement in patients with gram-negative of bacteremia. Fearon, D.T., Ruddy, S., Schur, P.H., McCabe, W.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan. Kokoshis, P.L., Williams, D.L., Cook, J.A., Di Luzio, N.R. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. In vivo v in vitro susceptibility of enterococcus to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. A pitfall. Goodhart, G.L. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Clinical features of heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia versus those of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. Maor, Y., Hagin, M., Belausov, N., Keller, N., Ben-David, D., Rahav, G. J. Infect. Dis. (2009) [Pubmed]
  15. Targeted adenovirus-induced expression of IL-10 decreases thymic apoptosis and improves survival in murine sepsis. Oberholzer, C., Oberholzer, A., Bahjat, F.R., Minter, R.M., Tannahill, C.L., Abouhamze, A., LaFace, D., Hutchins, B., Clare-Salzler, M.J., Moldawer, L.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Characteristics of bacteremia between community-acquired and nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae infection: risk factor for mortality and the impact of capsular serotypes as a herald for community-acquired infection. Tsay, R.W., Siu, L.K., Fung, C.P., Chang, F.Y. Arch. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Salmonella typhimurium bacteremia: association with the virulence plasmid. Fierer, J., Krause, M., Tauxe, R., Guiney, D. J. Infect. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of bacterial association with Kupffer cells in occurrence of endogenous systemic bacteremia. Hirakata, Y., Tomono, K., Tateda, K., Matsumoto, T., Furuya, N., Shimoguchi, K., Kaku, M., Yamaguchi, K. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Changes in availability of oxygen accentuate differences in capsular polysaccharide expression by phenotypic variants and clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Weiser, J.N., Bae, D., Epino, H., Gordon, S.B., Kapoor, M., Zenewicz, L.A., Shchepetov, M. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Protective effects of C5a blockade in sepsis. Czermak, B.J., Sarma, V., Pierson, C.L., Warner, R.L., Huber-Lang, M., Bless, N.M., Schmal, H., Friedl, H.P., Ward, P.A. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity. Alugupalli, K.R., Leong, J.M., Woodland, R.T., Muramatsu, M., Honjo, T., Gerstein, R.M. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Randomized, double-blind comparative study of intravenous ciprofloxacin versus ceftazidime in the treatment of serious infections. Levine, D.P., McNeil, P., Lerner, S.A. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Toward improved empiric management of moderate to severe urinary tract infections. Leibovici, L., Greenshtain, S., Cohen, O., Wysenbeek, A.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Streptococcus mitis sepsis in bone marrow transplant patients receiving oral antimicrobial prophylaxis. Classen, D.C., Burke, J.P., Ford, C.D., Evershed, S., Aloia, M.R., Wilfahrt, J.K., Elliott, J.A. Am. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Caspase inhibitors improve survival in sepsis: a critical role of the lymphocyte. Hotchkiss, R.S., Chang, K.C., Swanson, P.E., Tinsley, K.W., Hui, J.J., Klender, P., Xanthoudakis, S., Roy, S., Black, C., Grimm, E., Aspiotis, R., Han, Y., Nicholson, D.W., Karl, I.E. Nat. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Targeted mutation of TNF receptor I rescues the RelA-deficient mouse and reveals a critical role for NF-kappa B in leukocyte recruitment. Alcamo, E., Mizgerd, J.P., Horwitz, B.H., Bronson, R., Beg, A.A., Scott, M., Doerschuk, C.M., Hynes, R.O., Baltimore, D. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. The differential roles of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in host defense against systemic infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Prince, J.E., Brayton, C.F., Fossett, M.C., Durand, J.A., Kaplan, S.L., Smith, C.W., Ballantyne, C.M. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Early activation of hepatic NFkappaB and NF-IL6 in polymicrobial sepsis correlates with bacteremia, cytokine expression, and mortality. Williams, D.L., Ha, T., Li, C., Kalbfleisch, J.H., Ferguson, D.A. Ann. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential roles of CD14 and toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in murine Acinetobacter pneumonia. Knapp, S., Wieland, C.W., Florquin, S., Pantophlet, R., Dijkshoorn, L., Tshimbalanga, N., Akira, S., van der Poll, T. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Yersinia enterocolitica: the charisma continues. Bottone, E.J. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Rifampin does not improve the efficacy of quinolone antibacterial prophylaxis in neutropenic cancer patients: results of a randomized clinical trial. Gomez-Martin, C., Solá, C., Hornedo, J., Perea, S., Lumbreras, C., Valentí, V., Arcediano, A., Rodriguez, M., Salazar, R., Cortés-Funes, H., Hidalgo, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Efficacy of antithrombin III supplementation in animal models of fulminant Escherichia coli endotoxemia or bacteremia. Emerson, T.E., Fournel, M.A., Redens, T.B., Taylor, F.B. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Staphylococcus aureus prophylaxis in hemodialysis patients using central venous catheter: effect of mupirocin ointment. Sesso, R., Barbosa, D., Leme, I.L., Sader, H., Canziani, M.E., Manfredi, S., Draibe, S., Pignatari, A.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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