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Gene Review

fimI  -  fimbrial protein

Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. EDL933

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Disease relevance of fimI

  • Characterization of FimY as a coactivator of type 1 fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium [1].
  • The Product of the fimI gene is necessary for Escherichia coli type 1 pilus biosynthesis [2].
  • A substantial amount of fimbrial antigen was detected in the parenchymal regions affected by interstitial inflammation and fibrosis [3].
  • Cholera toxin (CT) B and A2 subunit complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were fused to a rotavirus enterotoxin and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigen genes and transferred into potato [4].
  • Recent studies show that the coupling of fimbrial adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and pathogenic Neisseria species to their complementary receptors on host cells is a dynamic event, involving specific signaling to the bacteria as well as to the host cell [5].

High impact information on fimI

  • Additionally, the type-1 fimbrial subunit, FimH, was the necessary enterobacterial component for mast-cell activation and neutrophil influx because an isogenic FimH- mutant evoked a limited neutrophil response in +/+ mice compared to wild-type bacteria [6].
  • The fimbrial structures (pili) on the bacterial surface carry the adhesin and are present during growth at 37 degrees C but are not produced by cells at lower temperatures, such as 25 degrees C. Thermoregulation of expression is due to temperature-dependent transcription of a regulatory cistron in the pilus-adhesin gene cluster [7].
  • The surface-located fimbrial structures are present during growth at 37 degrees C but are not produced by cells grown at lower temperatures, such as 25 degrees C. As a step toward understanding the molecular mechanism, we have studied the role of different cistrons of a cloned pilus adhesin gene cluster (pap) from a uropathogenic E. coli isolate [8].
  • In addition to regulating the catabolism of sialic acids through the nan operon, NanR controls at least two other operons of unknown function and appears to participate in the regulation of type 1 fimbrial phase variation [9].
  • Evidence is presented with immunogold labelling that the alpha-agglutinin is part of the outer fimbrial cell wall coat [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of fimI


Biological context of fimI


Anatomical context of fimI


Associations of fimI with chemical compounds

  • Enhanced type 1 fimbrial expression as a result of lrhA disruption was confirmed by mannose-sensitive agglutination of yeast cells [21].
  • The fimbrial binding activity of the receptor was reduced when treated with sodium metaperiodate, endoglycosidase H, trypsin, and V8 protease, suggesting the isolated receptor is a glycoprotein with N-linked carbohydrate units [22].
  • Here, we demonstrate that replacement of residues 185-279 within the FimH pilin domain with a corresponding segment of the type 1C fimbrial adhesin FocH leads to a loss of the multivalent mannotriose-specific binding property accompanied by the acquisition of a distinct monomannose-specific (i.e. monovalent) binding capability [23].
  • P, S, and type 1 fimbrial preparations with adhesins specific for Gal alpha 1-4Gal beta, NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal, and mannose, respectively, were inoculated intravesically into lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responder (C3H/HeN) and LPS-nonresponder (C3H/HeJ) mice [24].
  • Moreover, trimethoprim affected antigenic fimbrial expression at the bacterial cell surface [25].

Regulatory relationships of fimI

  • Expression of F165(1) and F165(2) fimbrial genes was analysed by using lacZ and/or luxAB as reporter genes under the control of the native fimbrial promoters [26].
  • It was shown that the cfa d gene and the Rns gene can functionally substitute each other in regulating fimbrial synthesis [27].

Other interactions of fimI

  • Analysis of the Salmonella fim gene cluster: identification of a new gene (fimI) encoding a fimbrin-like protein and located downstream from the fimA gene [28].
  • Adhesion to laminin of strain HB101(pPKL4) was inhibited by mannoside, and no adherence was seen with the fimH mutant E. coli HB101(pPKL5/pPKL53) lacking the fimbrial lectin subunit [29].
  • Five PCR assays have been developed which are based on the chromosomally encoded major fimbrial subunit genes fimA (type 1 fimbriae) and focA (F1C fimbriae), and the two small cryptic plasmids pMUT1 and pMUT2 [30].
  • Comparison of the genetic determinant coding for the S-fimbrial adhesin (sfa) of Escherichia coli to other chromosomally encoded fimbrial determinants [31].
  • A total of 449 Escherichia coli isolates in treated and raw water sources were submitted to DNA-DNA hybridization using seven different DNA probes to detect homology to sequences that code for Shiga-like toxins I and II; heat-stabile and heat-labile toxins, adherence factors EAF and eae, and the fimbrial antigen of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of fimI

  • Using Southern blot and DNA sequence analysis, we have detected a genomic rearrangement in the switch region immediately upstream of the fimbrial structural gene [33].
  • The genes determining the biosynthesis of the colonization factor CS5 have been cloned from Escherichia coli 0115:H40:PCF8775 isolated during an outbreak of diarrhoea among aboriginal children in Central Australia. Electron microscopy has shown purified CS5 to be of semi-rigid fimbrial type [34].
  • Using these deletion mutants for gating, expression of fimbrial antigens was measured by flow cytometry in cultures grown in vitro or in samples recovered 8 h after infection of bovine ligated ileal loops with S [35].
  • We assessed mutated recombinant strains each deficient in one fimbrial component for adhesion to frozen sections of rat cortical kidney and to fibronectin immobilized on glass [36].
  • The orientation (ON or OFF) of the invertible promoter element, which drives transcription of type 1 fimbrial genes, was determined by PCR amplification using primers that flank the invertible element, followed by SnaBI digestion [37].


  1. Characterization of FimY as a coactivator of type 1 fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Tinker, J.K., Clegg, S. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The Product of the fimI gene is necessary for Escherichia coli type 1 pilus biosynthesis. Valenski, M.L., Harris, S.L., Spears, P.A., Horton, J.R., Orndorff, P.E. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Development of experimental model of chronic pyelonephritis with Escherichia coli O75:K5:H-bearing Dr fimbriae: mutation in the dra region prevented tubulointerstitial nephritis. Goluszko, P., Moseley, S.L., Truong, L.D., Kaul, A., Williford, J.R., Selvarangan, R., Nowicki, S., Nowicki, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. A plant-based multicomponent vaccine protects mice from enteric diseases. Yu, J., Langridge, W.H. Nat. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Fimbriae-mediated host-pathogen cross-talk. Abraham, S.N., Jonsson, A.B., Normark, S. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Mast cell modulation of neutrophil influx and bacterial clearance at sites of infection through TNF-alpha. Malaviya, R., Ikeda, T., Ross, E., Abraham, S.N. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Transcriptional silencing and thermoregulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli. Göransson, M., Sondén, B., Nilsson, P., Dagberg, B., Forsman, K., Emanuelsson, K., Uhlin, B.E. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulatory genes in the thermoregulation of Escherichia coli pili gene transcription. Göransson, M., Forsman, K., Uhlin, B.E. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Diversity of microbial sialic acid metabolism. Vimr, E.R., Kalivoda, K.A., Deszo, E.L., Steenbergen, S.M. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Mating type-specific cell-cell recognition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: cell wall attachment and active sites of a- and alpha-agglutinin. Cappellaro, C., Baldermann, C., Rachel, R., Tanner, W. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of the fim cluster of an avian O2 strain of Escherichia coli: serogroup-specific sites within fimA and nucleotide sequence of fimI. Marc, D., Dho-Moulin, M. J. Med. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) acts as a human epithelial cell receptor for internalization of opsonized uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Li, K., Feito, M.J., Sacks, S.H., Sheerin, N.S. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The fimbrial adhesin F17-G of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli has an immunoglobulin-like lectin domain that binds N-acetylglucosamine. Buts, L., Bouckaert, J., De Genst, E., Loris, R., Oscarson, S., Lahmann, M., Messens, J., Brosens, E., Wyns, L., De Greve, H. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Control of FimY translation and type 1 fimbrial production by the arginine tRNA encoded by fimU in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Tinker, J.K., Clegg, S. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. New fimbrial antigen F165 from Escherichia coli serogroup O115 strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea. Fairbrother, J.M., Larivière, S., Lallier, R. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of Haemophilus influenzae fimbrial genes establishes adherence to oropharyngeal epithelial cells. van Ham, S.M., Mooi, F.R., Sindhunata, M.G., Maris, W.R., van Alphen, L. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract. Connell, I., Agace, W., Klemm, P., Schembri, M., Mărild, S., Svanborg, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. The lpf fimbrial operon mediates adhesion of Salmonella typhimurium to murine Peyer's patches. Bäumler, A.J., Tsolis, R.M., Heffron, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Mutational analysis of receptor binding mediated by the Dr family of Escherichia coli adhesins. Carnoy, C., Moseley, S.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Structure and function of periplasmic chaperone-like proteins involved in the biosynthesis of K88 and K99 fimbriae in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Bakker, D., Vader, C.E., Roosendaal, B., Mooi, F.R., Oudega, B., de Graaf, F.K. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of type 1 fimbriae synthesis and biofilm formation by the transcriptional regulator LrhA of Escherichia coli. Blumer, C., Kleefeld, A., Lehnen, D., Heintz, M., Dobrindt, U., Nagy, G., Michaelis, K., Emödy, L., Polen, T., Rachel, R., Wendisch, V.F., Unden, G. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Isolation and characterization of a receptor for type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli from guinea pig erythrocytes. Giampapa, C.S., Abraham, S.N., Chiang, T.M., Beachey, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Valency conversion in the type 1 fimbrial adhesin of Escherichia coli. Sokurenko, E.V., Schembri, M.A., Trintchina, E., Kjaergaard, K., Hasty, D.L., Klemm, P. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Adhesion-dependent activation of mucosal interleukin-6 production. Linder, H., Engberg, I., Hoschützky, H., Mattsby-Baltzer, I., Svanborg, C. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole on the synthesis, expression, and function of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Schifferli, D.M., Abraham, S.N., Beachey, E.H. J. Infect. Dis. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of global regulatory proteins and environmental conditions on fimbrial gene expression of F165(1) and F165(2) produced by Escherichia coli causing septicaemia in pigs. Daigle, F., Forget, C., Martin, C., Drolet, M., Tessier, M.C., Dezfulian, H., Harel, J. Res. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of CFA/I fimbriae is positively regulated. Savelkoul, P.H., Willshaw, G.A., McConnell, M.M., Smith, H.R., Hamers, A.M., van der Zeijst, B.A., Gaastra, W. Microb. Pathog. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of the Salmonella fim gene cluster: identification of a new gene (fimI) encoding a fimbrin-like protein and located downstream from the fimA gene. Rossolini, G.M., Muscas, P., Chiesurin, A., Satta, G. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Basement membrane carbohydrate as a target for bacterial adhesion: binding of type I fimbriae of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli to laminin. Kukkonen, M., Raunio, T., Virkola, R., Lähteenmäki, K., Mäkelä, P.H., Klemm, P., Clegg, S., Korhonen, T.K. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Development of strain-specific PCR reactions for the detection of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 in fecal samples. Blum-Oehler, G., Oswald, S., Eiteljörge, K., Sonnenborn, U., Schulze, J., Kruis, W., Hacker, J. Res. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Comparison of the genetic determinant coding for the S-fimbrial adhesin (sfa) of Escherichia coli to other chromosomally encoded fimbrial determinants. Ott, M., Schmoll, T., Goebel, W., Van Die, I., Hacker, J. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Detection of virulence factors in culturable Escherichia coli isolates from water samples by DNA probes and recovery of toxin-bearing strains in minimal o-nitrophenol-beta-D-galactopyranoside-4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-g luc uronide media. Martins, M.T., Rivera, I.G., Clark, D.L., Olson, B.H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. An invertible element of DNA controls phase variation of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Abraham, J.M., Freitag, C.S., Clements, J.R., Eisenstein, B.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization and molecular cloning of the PCF8775 CS5 antigen from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 0115:H40 isolated in Central Australia. Heuzenroeder, M.W., Neal, B.L., Thomas, C.J., Halter, R., Manning, P.A. Mol. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. The use of flow cytometry to detect expression of subunits encoded by 11 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium fimbrial operons. Humphries, A.D., Raffatellu, M., Winter, S., Weening, E.H., Kingsley, R.A., Droleskey, R., Zhang, S., Figueiredo, J., Khare, S., Nunes, J., Adams, L.G., Tsolis, R.M., Bäumler, A.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Multifunctional nature of P fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: mutations in fsoE and fsoF influence fimbrial binding to renal tubuli and immobilized fibronectin. Westerlund, B., van Die, I., Kramer, C., Kuusela, P., Holthöfer, H., Tarkkanen, A.M., Virkola, R., Riegman, N., Bergmans, H., Hoekstra, W. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. In vivo phase variation of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial genes in women with urinary tract infection. Lim, J.K., Gunther, N.W., Zhao, H., Johnson, D.E., Keay, S.K., Mobley, H.L. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
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