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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pyelonephritis


High impact information on Pyelonephritis


Chemical compound and disease context of Pyelonephritis


Biological context of Pyelonephritis


Anatomical context of Pyelonephritis


Gene context of Pyelonephritis

  • Urinary levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) higher than those of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) during acute pyelonephritis have previously been associated with a higher degree of acute inflammation and of postinfective renal scarring [20].
  • In contrast, TLR4 is not expressed on human proximal tubule cells isolated from the renal cortex, which may explain the cortical localization of bacteria in pyelonephritis [23].
  • PURPOSE: We compared serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as inflammatory markers for pyelonephritis and cystitis [24].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of IL-6 on mortality, bacterial growth and cytokine expression in experimental acute pyelonephritis [25].
  • We therefore conclude that IL-6 plays an important role in bacterial clearance and directly influences the TGF-beta levels in experimental acute pyelonephritis [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pyelonephritis


  1. Molecular cloning of the K1 capsular polysaccharide genes of E. coli. Silver, R.P., Finn, C.W., Vann, W.F., Aaronson, W., Schneerson, R., Kretschmer, P.J., Garon, C.F. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Single-dose therapy for cystitis in women. A comparison of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, and cyclacillin. Hooton, T.M., Running, K., Stamm, W.E. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Reversible acute renal failure induced by indomethacin. Tan, S.Y., Shapiro, R., Kish, M.A. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Development of experimental model of chronic pyelonephritis with Escherichia coli O75:K5:H-bearing Dr fimbriae: mutation in the dra region prevented tubulointerstitial nephritis. Goluszko, P., Moseley, S.L., Truong, L.D., Kaul, A., Williford, J.R., Selvarangan, R., Nowicki, S., Nowicki, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Behavior of eosinophil leukocytes in acute inflammation. I. Lack of dependence on adrenal function. Bass, D.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Correlation of P blood group, vesicoureteral reflux, and bacterial attachment in patients with recurrent pyelonephritis. Lomberg, H., Hanson, L.A., Jacobsson, B., Jodal, U., Leffler, H., Edén, C.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Epithelial secretion of C3 promotes colonization of the upper urinary tract by Escherichia coli. Springall, T., Sheerin, N.S., Abe, K., Holers, V.M., Wan, H., Sacks, S.H. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparison of ciprofloxacin (7 days) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14 days) for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis pyelonephritis in women: a randomized trial. Talan, D.A., Stamm, W.E., Hooton, T.M., Moran, G.J., Burke, T., Iravani, A., Reuning-Scherer, J., Church, D.A. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Renal papillary necrosis and pyelonephritis accompanying fenoprofen therapy. Husserl, F.E., Lange, R.K., Kantrow, C.M. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. A study of the intrarenal recycling of urea in the rat with chronic experimental pyelonephritis. Gilbert, R.M., Weber, H., Turchin, L., Fine, L.G., Bourgoignie, J.J., Bricker, N.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Gal-Gal pili vaccines prevent pyelonephritis by piliated Escherichia coli in a murine model. Single-component Gal-Gal pili vaccines prevent pyelonephritis by homologous and heterologous piliated E. coli strains. Pecha, B., Low, D., O'Hanley, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Frequency of E. coli K antigens in urinary-tract infections in children. Kaijser, B., Hanson, L.A., Jodal, U., Lidin-Janson, G., Robbins, J.B. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Mannose-resistant haemagglutination and P antigen recognition are characteristic of Escherichia coli causing primary pyelonephritis. Väisänen, V., Elo, J., Tallgren, L.G., Siitonen, A., Mäkelä, P.H., Svanborg-Edén, C., Källenius, G., Svenson, S.B., Hultberg, H., Korhonen, T. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Synthetic peptides corresponding to protective epitopes of Escherichia coli digalactoside-binding pilin prevent infection in a murine pyelonephritis model. Schmidt, M.A., O'Hanley, P., Lark, D., Schoolnik, G.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. dra-related X adhesins of gestational pyelonephritis-associated Escherichia coli recognize SCR-3 and SCR-4 domains of recombinant decay-accelerating factor. Pham, T., Kaul, A., Hart, A., Goluszko, P., Moulds, J., Nowicki, S., Lublin, D.M., Nowicki, B.J. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Decreased predominance of papG class II allele in Escherichia coli strains isolated from adults with acute pyelonephritis and urinary tract abnormalities. Tseng, C.C., Huang, J.J., Ko, W.C., Yan, J.J., Wu, J.J. J. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Effective prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Pfau, A., Sacks, T.G. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Signaling danger: toll-like receptors and their potential roles in kidney disease. Anders, H.J., Banas, B., Schlöndorff, D. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Toll-like receptor-4: renal cells and bone marrow cells signal for neutrophil recruitment during pyelonephritis. Patole, P.S., Schubert, S., Hildinger, K., Khandoga, S., Khandoga, A., Segerer, S., Henger, A., Kretzler, M., Werner, M., Krombach, F., Schlöndorff, D., Anders, H.J. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 activates normal human granulocytes, protects them from apoptosis, and blocks their transmigration during inflammation. Chromek, M., Tullus, K., Lundahl, J., Brauner, A. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The pharmacokinetic advantage of local 6-mercaptopurine infusion in a canine renal transplant model. Gruber, S.A., Canafax, D.M., Erdmann, G.R., Cipolle, R.J., Burke, B.A., Rabatin, J.T., Hynes, P.E., Gould, F.H., Heil, J.E., Ascher, N.L. Transplantation (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Internalization of Escherichia coli into human kidney epithelial cells: comparison of fecal and pyelonephritis-associated strains. Donnenberg, M.S., Newman, B., Utsalo, S.J., Trifillis, A.L., Hebel, J.R., Warren, J.W. J. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of innate immune responses by Escherichia coli and purified lipopolysaccharide correlate with organ- and cell-specific expression of Toll-like receptors within the human urinary tract. Bäckhed, F., Söderhäll, M., Ekman, P., Normark, S., Richter-Dahlfors, A. Cell. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Serum amyloid A: a novel serum marker for the detection of systemic inflammatory response in cystitis. Lannergard, A., Friman, G., Larsson, A. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Renal cytokine responses in acute Escherichia coli pyelonephritis in IL-6-deficient mice. Khalil, A., Tullus, K., Bartfai, T., Bakhiet, M., Jaremko, G., Brauner, A. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Demonstration of an antibody to tubular epithelium in glomerulonephritis associated with obstructive uropathy. Pascal, R.R., Sian, C.S., Brensilver, J.M., Kahn, M., Lefavour, G.S. Am. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Diuretic MAG3 scintigraphy (F0) in acute pyelonephritis: regional parenchymal dysfunction and comparison with DMSA. Sfakianakis, G.N., Cavagnaro, F., Zilleruelo, G., Abitbol, C., Montane, B., Georgiou, M., Ezuddin, S., Mallin, W., Sfakianakis, E., Strauss, J. J. Nucl. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Technetium-99m-DMSA renal cortical scintigraphy to detect experimental acute pyelonephritis in piglets: comparison of planar (pinhole) and SPECT imaging. Majd, M., Rushton, H.G., Chandra, R., Andrich, M.P., Tardif, C.P., Rashti, F. J. Nucl. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Relationship between neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury during acute experimental pyelonephritis and chronic renal scarring. Meylan, P.R., Markert, M., Bille, J., Glauser, M.P. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. The quinolones and renal infection. Ronald, A. Drugs (1999) [Pubmed]
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