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Gene Review

CGB  -  chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CGB3, CGB5, CGB7, CGB8, hCGB
 
 
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Disease relevance of CGB

  • We aimed to compare the expression of individual CGB genes during normal pregnancy and in cases of recurrent miscarriage (RM) and ectopic pregnancy (EP) [1].
  • In conclusion, DNA copy number profiles were generated by CGH for most of the publicly available breast cancer cell lines and were made available on a web site (http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/DIR/CGB/++ +CR2000) [2].
 

High impact information on CGB

  • Two MCCB missense mutations and one splicing defect mutation leading to early MCC beta truncation were found in CGB patients [3].
  • The LHB/CGB cluster consists of seven duplicated genes critical in human reproduction [4].
  • Overexpression of the CGA gene was not accompanied by overexpression of the CGB gene [5].
  • PstI RFLP of the CGB gene [6].
  • The addition of EGF decreases CGB secretion and prolongs production for up to 13 days [7].
 

Biological context of CGB

  • The luteinizing hormone (LHB)/chorionic gonadotropin (CGB) gene cluster in humans contains a candidate example of this process [8].
  • In the LHB/CGB region, high sequence diversity, concentration of gene-conversion acceptor sites, and strong LD colocalize with peripheral genes, whereas central loci are characterized by lower variation, gene-conversion donor activity, and breakdown of LD between close markers [4].
  • (3) CF patients with low liver function had significantly lower protein binding of aldosterone and only slightly lower CGB capacity, presumably due to disturbed protein synthesis by the liver [9].
 

Anatomical context of CGB

  • N-terminal peptides of chromogranin A and B (CGA and CGB) were compared for dilator responses in isolated bovine coronary arteries (bCoA), measuring diameter changes as a function of pressure. bCoA developed and maintained myogenic tone (MYT) at approximately 20% from 50 to 150 mm Hg [10].
  • A 3H-cortisol-binding assay, which distinguished between CBG and glucocorticoid receptor, was used to determine CGB levels in the serum and in the cytosol, nuclear, and membrane fractions of deciduoma, myometrium, liver, kidney, muscle, and small intestine [11].
  • In contrast to the regulation of the enkephalin system, no increase in either CGA or CGB mRNA or gene transcription attended depolarization-induced secretion from chromaffin cells [12].
 

Associations of CGB with chemical compounds

  • When added to villous explant cultures, EGF did nothing to the pattern of CGB secretion, but addition of SB203580 prevented the normal surge in secretion during syncytial regeneration over Days 3-7 [7].
  • Utilization of glycine was the most frequent atypical variable; 36 of 276 (13%) A/D isolates utilized glycine while being inhibited by either GCP or CGB or both [13].
  • Three hundred twenty-three clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans of diverse geographic origins were biochemically serogrouped using glycine-cycloheximide-phenol red agar (GCP), the same medium less cycloheximide (GOP), and glycine-L-canavanine bromothymol blue agar (CGB) [13].
  • The results disclosed a high sensitivity, D-proline 99-13% and CGB 99.57%, for screening of the varieties [14].
 

Other interactions of CGB

  • We have tested this hypothesis by quantifying the expression of the hCG beta (CGB) RNA, LHCGR RNA and LHCGR proteins in chorionic villous samples [15].

References

  1. Expression of beta-subunit of HCG genes during normal and failed pregnancy. Rull, K., Laan, M. Hum. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 38 breast cancer cell lines: a basis for interpreting complementary DNA microarray data. Forozan, F., Mahlamäki, E.H., Monni, O., Chen, Y., Veldman, R., Jiang, Y., Gooden, G.C., Ethier, S.P., Kallioniemi, A., Kallioniemi, O.P. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The molecular basis of 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria, a disorder of leucine catabolism. Gallardo, M.E., Desviat, L.R., Rodríguez, J.M., Esparza-Gordillo, J., Pérez-Cerdá, C., Pérez, B., Rodríguez-Pombo, P., Criado, O., Sanz, R., Morton, D.H., Gibson, K.M., Le, T.P., Ribes, A., de Córdoba, S.R., Ugarte, M., Peñalva, M.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Segmental duplications and gene conversion: Human luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin beta gene cluster. Hallast, P., Nagirnaja, L., Margus, T., Laan, M. Genome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of CGA as a novel estrogen receptor-responsive gene in breast cancer: an outstanding candidate marker to predict the response to endocrine therapy. Bieche, I., Parfait, B., Le Doussal, V., Olivi, M., Rio, M.C., Lidereau, R., Vidaud, M. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. PstI RFLP of the CGB gene. Southall, M., Chenevix-Trench, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Epidermal growth factor stimulation of trophoblast differentiation requires MAPK11/14 (p38 MAP kinase) activation. Johnstone, E.D., Sibley, C.P., Lowen, B., Guilbert, L.J. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The evolution and genomic landscape of CGB1 and CGB2 genes. Hallast, P., Rull, K., Laan, M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. The relationship of plasma aldosterone-binding globulin to blood pressure regulation in young adults with cystic fibrosis. Nowaczynski, W., Nakielana, E.M., Murakami, T., Shurmans, J. Clinical physiology and biochemistry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. N-terminal chromogranin-derived peptides as dilators of bovine coronary resistance arteries. Brekke, J.F., Osol, G.J., Helle, K.B. Regul. Pept. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Hamster uterine tissues accumulate corticosteroid-binding globulin during decidualization. Selcer, K.W., Leavitt, W.W. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Enkephalin biosynthesis is coupled to secretory activity via transcription of the proenkephalin A gene. MacArthur, L., Iacangelo, A.L., Hsu, C.M., Eiden, L.E. J. Physiol. Paris (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Biochemical serogrouping of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Shadomy, H.J., Wood-Helie, S., Shadomy, S., Dismukes, W.E., Chau, R.Y. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Use of D-proline assimilation and CGB medium for screening Brazilian Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. Nishikawa, M.M., Sant'Anna, O.D., Lazera, M.S., Wanke, B. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. A link between high serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin and chorionic expression of its mature functional receptor (LHCGR) in Down's syndrome pregnancies. Banerjee, S., Smallwood, A., Chambers, A.E., Papageorghiou, A., Loosfelt, H., Spencer, K., Campbell, S., Nicolaides, K. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
 
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