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Gene Review

Slc6a12  -  solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: BGT1, GAT-2, GAT2, Gabt2, Gat-2, ...
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High impact information on Slc6a12

  • GAT-3, like GAT-1, localized to the apical membrane of MDCK cells while GAT-2, like BGT, localized to the basolateral membrane [1].
  • The newly cloned GABA transporters were compared with two previously cloned GABA transporters, GAT1 and GAT2, in terms of molecular and pharmacological properties [2].
  • The new GABA transporter, named GAT2, is highly homologous to the betaine transporter (BGT1) cloned from canine kidney [3].
  • GAT2 transports betaine with a Km of about 200 microM, but no significant transport of beta-alanine could be detected [3].
  • Expression of GAT2 in Xenopus oocytes revealed a Km of 79 microM for GABA uptake which is about 10-fold higher than that of the high affinity GABA transporter (GAT1) [3].

Biological context of Slc6a12

  • In this report, we have localized the other two GABA transporters, GAT-2 and GAT-3, in transfected MDCK cells by GABA uptake, immunofluorescence, and cell surface biotinylation [1].
  • SNAP-5114, a specific GABA transporter-2/3 (GAT-2/3) blocker, enhanced mIPSC frequencies, decreased PPR, and increased eIPSC amplitudes without changing eIPSC kinetics [4].
  • The up-regulation of GAT2 protein was not affecting total GABA uptake but the hyperosmotic condition did change total GABA uptake possibly involving GAT1 [5].
  • Taken together, these results indicate that astroglial GAT2 expression and function may be regulated by hyperosmolarity in cultured mouse astrocytes, suggesting a role of GAT2 in osmoregulation in neural cells [5].

Anatomical context of Slc6a12

  • The transcripts of GAT2 were found in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem as well as in kidney [3].
  • Mouse GAT2 mRNA was expressed only in proliferating and migrating cerebellar granule cells, whereas mGAT3 mRNA was absent from the brain and spinal cord throughout development [6].
  • Moreover, confocal immunofluorescent microscopy of dual-labeled mouse brain sections demonstrated the colocalization of GAT2/BGT-1 and P-glycoprotein, a BBB-specific marker, on brain capillaries labeled with anti-GAT2/BGT-1 antibody and anti-P-glycoprotein antibody, respectively [7].
  • GAT2/BGT-1 as a system responsible for the transport of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the mouse blood-brain barrier [7].
  • When astrocytes were grown for 24 h under hyperosmotic conditions GAT2 protein was up-regulated 2-4-fold compared to the level of the isotonic control [5].

Associations of Slc6a12 with chemical compounds

  • Specificity assays suggested that the transporter involved in delta-aminolevulinic acid incorporation is a BETA transporter, probably GAT-2 [8].
  • Using Western Blotting the expression of the mouse GAT2 protein was investigated in astrocyte primary cultures exposed to a growth medium made hyperosmotic (353+/-2.5 mosmol/kg) by adding sodium chloride [5].

Other interactions of Slc6a12

  • Low affinity GABA transporters GAT2 and GAT3 were inhibited most effectively by betaine and beta-alanine, respectively [2].
  • In the presence of 20 microM GABA and at pH 7.5, the half-maximal uptake activity was 47, 120, 25 and 35 mM Na(+) for GAT1, GAT2, GAT3 and GAT4, respectively [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Slc6a12

  • RT-PCR analysis showed that GAT2/BGT-1 mRNA was expressed in TM-BBB cells, whereas Western blot analysis showed that TM-BBB cells and mouse brain capillaries express GAT2/BGT-1 protein [7].


  1. Polarized expression of GABA transporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Ahn, J., Mundigl, O., Muth, T.R., Rudnick, G., Caplan, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular characterization of four pharmacologically distinct gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters in mouse brain [corrected]. Liu, Q.R., López-Corcuera, B., Mandiyan, S., Nelson, H., Nelson, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of a mouse brain cDNA encoding novel gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter. Lopez-Corcuera, B., Liu, Q.R., Mandiyan, S., Nelson, H., Nelson, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Ambient GABA constrains the strength of GABAergic synapses at Cajal-Retzius cells in the developing visual cortex. Kirmse, K., Kirischuk, S. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of hyperosmotic conditions on the expression of the betaine-GABA-transporter (BGT-1) in cultured mouse astrocytes. Olsen, M., Sarup, A., Larsson, O.M., Schousboe, A. Neurochem. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Embryonic and postnatal expression of four gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter mRNAs in the mouse brain and leptomeninges. Evans, J.E., Frostholm, A., Rotter, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. GAT2/BGT-1 as a system responsible for the transport of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the mouse blood-brain barrier. Takanaga, H., Ohtsuki, S., Hosoya Ki, n.u.l.l., Terasaki, T. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Delta-Aminolevulinic acid transport in murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells is mediated by beta transporters. Bermúdez Moretti, M., Correa García, S., Perotti, C., Batlle, A., Casas, A. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential effect of pH on sodium binding by the various GABA transporters expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Grossman, T.R., Nelson, N. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
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