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Gene Review

aadA  -  aminoglycoside resistance protein

Escherichia coli

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Disease relevance of aadA


High impact information on aadA

  • A biolistic approach was used to integrate two fusion genes, one encoding aminoglycoside-3-adenyltransferase (aadA) and the first 123 aa of the Ssp DnaE intein (In) and the other encoding 36 C-terminal amino acid residues of the Ssp DnaE intein (Ic) and soluble modified green fluorescent protein (smGFP) into N. tabacum plastids [5].
  • Transcription from the conII derivatives in the absence of repression interferes with the phenotypic expression of an adjacent drug-resistance gene, aadA [6].
  • Southern hybridization analysis revealed that homologous aadA sequences were also present in other streptomycin-resistant Salmonella species [1].
  • A model is presented for the evolution of this region of the plasmid genomes in which the 59- base element functions as an insertional "hot spot" and the possibility that this region is analogous to the aadA/aadB region of the Tn21- like transposon family is considered [7].
  • Nucleotide sequence of the AAD(2'') aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase determinant aadB. Evolutionary relationship of this region with those surrounding aadA in R538-1 and dhfrII in R388 [7].

Biological context of aadA

  • Comparison of the DNA sequences of Tn7 and plasmid R538-1 indicated that their aadA genes were nearly identical [8].
  • A segment of the aadB gene sequence (including the promoter region) was found upstream of the aadA gene in R538-1 and of the dhfrII gene in R388 and the proposed promoters for these genes coincide with the aadB promoter region [7].
  • The sul3 gene has been identified in isolates from different sources and serotypes, which also carried a class 1 integron with aadA and dfrA gene cassettes [9].
  • The SpR gene of pSa has extensive sequence homology with the aadA gene of the plasmid R538-1 [10].
  • The kinds and frequencies of recombination events observed between integrative plasmids with aadA and the M. xanthus chromosome are similar to those observed after the transformation of yeast [4].

Anatomical context of aadA

  • Integration of the plastome specific aadA cassette into the nuclear genome accounted for a fraction of the resistant cell lines [11].

Associations of aadA with chemical compounds

  • The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species [12].
  • Depending on the presence or absence and level of expression of the genes aacA4, aadA, and dfrI and of insertion element IS15, four types of plasmids could be distinguished [13].
  • Selection for aadA in M. xanthus can be carried out independently of, or simultaneously with, selection for resistance to kanamycin [4].

Other interactions of aadA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aadA


  1. Isolation and characterization of the aadA aminoglycoside-resistance gene from Salmonella choleraesuis. Leung, K.Y., Ruschkowski, S.R., Finlay, B.B. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutations altering the predicted secondary structure of a chloroplast 5' untranslated region affect its physical and biochemical properties as well as its ability to promote translation of reporter mRNAs both in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast and in Escherichia coli. Fargo, D.C., Boynton, J.E., Gillham, N.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. aadA confers streptomycin resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi. Frank, K.L., Bundle, S.F., Kresge, M.E., Eggers, C.H., Samuels, D.S. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The aadA gene of plasmid R100 confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin in Myxococcus xanthus. Magrini, V., Creighton, C., White, D., Hartzell, P.L., Youderian, P. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Protein trans-splicing in transgenic plant chloroplast: reconstruction of herbicide resistance from split genes. Chin, H.G., Kim, G.D., Marin, I., Mersha, F., Evans, T.C., Chen, L., Xu, M.Q., Pradhan, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic selection for genes encoding sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Elledge, S.J., Sugiono, P., Guarente, L., Davis, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of the AAD(2'') aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase determinant aadB. Evolutionary relationship of this region with those surrounding aadA in R538-1 and dhfrII in R388. Cameron, F.H., Groot Obbink, D.J., Ackerman, V.P., Hall, R.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Nucleotide sequence of the transposon Tn7 gene encoding an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, 3"(9)-O-nucleotidyltransferase. Fling, M.E., Kopf, J., Richards, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Dissemination of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) in Portuguese Salmonella enterica strains and relation with integrons. Antunes, P., Machado, J., Sousa, J.C., Peixe, L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The aminoglycoside-resistance operon of the plasmid pSa: nucleotide sequence of the streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance gene. Tait, R.C., Rempel, H., Rodriguez, R.L., Kado, C.I. Gene (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Integration of foreign sequences into the tobacco plastome via polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast transformation. Koop, H.U., Steinmüller, K., Wagner, H., Rössler, C., Eibl, C., Sacher, L. Planta (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Novel streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance gene as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron isolated from Escherichia coli. Sandvang, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular epidemiology of TEM-3 (CTX-1) beta-lactamase. Petit, A., Gerbaud, G., Sirot, D., Courvalin, P., Sirot, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Chloramphenicol and kanamycin resistance among porcine Escherichia coli in Ontario. Travis, R.M., Gyles, C.L., Reid-Smith, R., Poppe, C., McEwen, S.A., Friendship, R., Janecko, N., Boerlin, P. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The genetic background for streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli influences the distribution of MICs. Sunde, M., Norström, M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. A DNA microarray for identification of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella serovars and Escherichia coli. Chen, S., Zhao, S., McDermott, P.F., Schroeder, C.M., White, D.G., Meng, J. Mol. Cell. Probes (2005) [Pubmed]
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