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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

3' Flanking Region

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Disease relevance of 3' Flanking Region


High impact information on 3' Flanking Region


Chemical compound and disease context of 3' Flanking Region


Biological context of 3' Flanking Region


Anatomical context of 3' Flanking Region


Associations of 3' Flanking Region with chemical compounds

  • High-level tuber expression and sucrose inducibility of a potato Sus4 sucrose synthase gene require 5' and 3' flanking sequences and the leader intron [22].
  • Three concatenated copies of the 10-bp Inr and its immediate 3' flanking sequence produce full neural specific activity that is down-regulated by GABA in transiently transfected neocortical neurons [23].
  • Analysis of 5' and 3' flanking sequences shows that Tn2603 differs from its probable precursor, Tn21, by a precise 1004-base-pair insertion, containing the OXA-1 structural gene, at the target sequence AAAGTT, which is located between the Tn21 streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA) promoter and its structural gene [24].
  • Mutational analysis of the gamma-globin promoter indicates that the distal CCAAT box and 3' flanking sequence (CCAATAGCC) is critical for activation by butyrate, trapoxin, and trichostatin, whereas the proximal element (CCAATAGTC) plays a less important role [25].
  • We have extended the transgenic analysis to Hoxa4 identifying mesodermal, neural and retinoid responsive components in the 3' flanking region of that gene, which reflect aspects of endogenous Hoxa4 expression [26].

Gene context of 3' Flanking Region


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of 3' Flanking Region


  1. Isolation and analysis of genomic DNA clones encoding the third component of mouse complement. Wiebauer, K., Domdey, H., Diggelmann, H., Fey, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of hypoxia-responsive enhancer in the human erythropoietin gene shows presence of hypoxia-inducible 120-Kd nuclear DNA-binding protein in erythropoietin-producing and nonproducing cells. Beck, I., Weinmann, R., Caro, J. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of gene expression using episomal mouse dihydrofolate reductase minigenes. Crouse, G.F., Stivaletta, L.A., Smith, M.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Linkage analysis of the glucokinase locus in familial type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic pedigrees. Elbein, S.C., Hoffman, M., Chiu, K., Tanizawa, Y., Permutt, M.A. Diabetologia (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Polymorphisms at - 174 and in the 3' flanking region of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene in patients with myasthenia gravis. Huang, D., Zheng, C., Giscombe, R., Matell, G., Pirskanen, R., Lefvert, A.K. J. Neuroimmunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Position-independent, high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice. Grosveld, F., van Assendelft, G.B., Greaves, D.R., Kollias, G. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Ectopic expression of Thy-1 in the kidneys of transgenic mice induces functional and proliferative abnormalities. Kollias, G., Evans, D.J., Ritter, M., Beech, J., Morris, R., Grosveld, F. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. The structure of a human alpha-globin pseudogene and its relationship to alpha-globin gene duplication. Proudfoot, N.J., Maniatis, T. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. A new member of the leucine zipper class of proteins that binds to the HLA DR alpha promoter. Liou, H.C., Boothby, M.R., Finn, P.W., Davidon, R., Nabavi, N., Zeleznik-Le, N.J., Ting, J.P., Glimcher, L.H. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Adenylation and exosome-mediated degradation of cotranscriptionally cleaved pre-messenger RNA in human cells. West, S., Gromak, N., Norbury, C.J., Proudfoot, N.J. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide sequence of thrC and of the transcription termination region of the threonine operon in Escherichia coli K12. Parsot, C., Cossart, P., Saint-Girons, I., Cohen, G.N. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. A cell-free plant extract for accurate pre-tRNA processing, splicing and modification. Stange, N., Beier, H. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Disruption of the LF-A1 and LF-B1 binding sites in the human alpha-1-antitrypsin gene has a differential effect during development in transgenic mice. Tripodi, M., Abbott, C., Vivian, N., Cortese, R., Lovell-Badge, R. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene. Semenza, G.L., Traystman, M.D., Gearhart, J.D., Antonarakis, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Analysis of the tissue-specific enhancer at the 3' end of the chicken adult beta-globin gene. Emerson, B.M., Nickol, J.M., Jackson, P.D., Felsenfeld, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Point mutation in a 3' flanking sequence of the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene associated with chronic respiratory disease occurs in a regulatory sequence. Morgan, K., Scobie, G., Kalsheker, N.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Bidirectional control of the chicken beta- and epsilon-globin genes by a shared enhancer. Nickol, J.M., Felsenfeld, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Transgenic targeting with regulatory elements of the human CD34 gene. Radomska, H.S., Gonzalez, D.A., Okuno, Y., Iwasaki, H., Nagy, A., Akashi, K., Tenen, D.G., Huettner, C.S. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Synthesis of human U1 RNA. II. Identification of two regions of the promoter essential for transcription initiation at position +1. Skuzeski, J.M., Lund, E., Murphy, J.T., Steinberg, T.H., Burgess, R.R., Dahlberg, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Deletion analysis of the human CD2 gene locus control region in transgenic mice. Lang, G., Mamalaki, C., Greenberg, D., Yannoutsos, N., Kioussis, D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Sequence organisation of rat seminal vesicle F gene: location of transcriptional start point and sequence comparison with six other androgen-regulated genes. Williams, L., McDonald, C., Higgins, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. High-level tuber expression and sucrose inducibility of a potato Sus4 sucrose synthase gene require 5' and 3' flanking sequences and the leader intron. Fu, H., Kim, S.Y., Park, W.D. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. An initiator element mediates autologous downregulation of the human type A gamma -aminobutyric acid receptor beta 1 subunit gene. Russek, S.J., Bandyopadhyay, S., Farb, D.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta-lactamase gene. Ouellette, M., Bissonnette, L., Roy, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of gamma-globin by histone deacetylase inhibitors. McCaffrey, P.G., Newsome, D.A., Fibach, E., Yoshida, M., Su, M.S. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. HOXD4 and regulation of the group 4 paralog genes. Morrison, A., Ariza-McNaughton, L., Gould, A., Featherstone, M., Krumlauf, R. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Amyrel, a paralogous gene of the amylase gene family in Drosophila melanogaster and the Sophophora subgenus. Da Lage, J.L., Renard, E., Chartois, F., Lemeunier, F., Cariou, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Structure of two unlinked Drosophila melanogaster glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. Tso, J.Y., Sun, X.H., Wu, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Nucleotide sequence of the haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related gene pair. The haptoglobin-related gene contains a retrovirus-like element. Maeda, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Yeast gene TRP5: structure, function, regulation. Zalkin, H., Yanofsky, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. Extraembryonic expression of the human MHC class I gene HLA-G in transgenic mice. Evidence for a positive regulatory region located 1 kilobase 5' to the start site of transcription. Schmidt, C.M., Ehlenfeldt, R.G., Athanasiou, M.C., Duvick, L.A., Heinrichs, H., David, C.S., Orr, H.T. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Mouse RNA helicase II/Gu: cDNA and genomic sequences, chromosomal localization, and regulation of expression. Valdez, B.C., Wang, W. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. High level expression of human apolipoprotein A-I in transgenic rats raises total serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and lowers rat apolipoprotein A-I. Swanson, M.E., Hughes, T.E., Denny, I.S., France, D.S., Paterniti, J.R., Tapparelli, C., Gfeller, P., Bürki, K. Transgenic Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. The organization of mitochondrial atp6 gene region in male fertile and CMS lines of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Kim, D.H., Kim, B.D. Curr. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
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