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Gene Review

sul1  -  dihydropteroate synthase

Escherichia coli

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Disease relevance of sul1


High impact information on sul1

  • Potential silencing of the resistance genes bla(OXA-2), aadA1, sul1, and tetA carried on the plasmid pVE46 in a recent porcine isolate of Escherichia coli was investigated following oral inoculation of the strain into organic piglets [5].
  • All strains harbored a qnrA gene located on a sul1-type class 1 integron with similar structure to the In36 integron [6].
  • Examination of the other three bla(CTX-M) genes by cloning, sequencing, and PCR analysis revealed the presence of a complex sul1-type integron that includes open reading frame ORF513, which carries the bla gene and the surrounding DNA [7].
  • Negative associations were found between resistance genes encoding resistance to the same antimicrobial agent: tet(A)/tet(B), sul1/sul2 and strA-strB/aadA1 [8].
  • Transformation experiments confirmed statistical associations by demonstrating that elt, estB, astA, aadA and sul1 were located with catA1 on a large ETEC plasmid [9].

Biological context of sul1

  • A sul1-type class 1 integron containing an aacA1-orfG gene cassette was identified upstream of bla(CMY-9) and ended with a truncated 3' conserved segment [10].
  • Furthermore, the presence of the common DT104 antibiotic resistance genes for the penta-resistance type ACSSuT, aadA2, floR, pse-1, sul1 and tet(G), was also studied because of the authors' focus on this emerging type [11].
  • The origin of sul1 and sul2 found in isolates from healthy humans is speculative, but their spread from pigs to humans via the food chain is possible [12].

Associations of sul1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of sul1


  1. Novel complex sul1-type integron in Escherichia coli carrying bla(CTX-M-9). Sabaté, M., Navarro, F., Miró, E., Campoy, S., Mirelis, B., Barbé, J., Prats, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Dissemination of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) in Portuguese Salmonella enterica strains and relation with integrons. Antunes, P., Machado, J., Sousa, J.C., Peixe, L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Sulphonamide resistance gene sul3 found in Escherichia coli isolates from human sources. Grape, M., Sundström, L., Kronvall, G. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Variation in clonality and antibiotic-resistance genes among multiresistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium phage-type U302 (MR U302) from humans, animals, and foods. Walker, R.A., Lindsay, E., Woodward, M.J., Ward, L.R., Threlfall, E.J. Microb. Drug Resist. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence of antibiotic resistance gene silencing in Escherichia coli. Enne, V.I., Delsol, A.A., Roe, J.M., Bennett, P.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. qnrA in CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from France. Lavigne, J.P., Marchandin, H., Delmas, J., Bouziges, N., Lecaillon, E., Cavalie, L., Jean-Pierre, H., Bonnet, R., Sotto, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Dissemination of CTX-M-type beta-lactamases among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Paris, France. Eckert, C., Gautier, V., Saladin-Allard, M., Hidri, N., Verdet, C., Ould-Hocine, Z., Barnaud, G., Delisle, F., Rossier, A., Lambert, T., Philippon, A., Arlet, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. The prevalence of, associations between and conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from Norwegian meat and meat products. Sunde, M., Norström, M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Chloramphenicol and kanamycin resistance among porcine Escherichia coli in Ontario. Travis, R.M., Gyles, C.L., Reid-Smith, R., Poppe, C., McEwen, S.A., Friendship, R., Janecko, N., Boerlin, P. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a novel plasmid-mediated cephalosporinase (CMY-9) and its genetic environment in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. Doi, Y., Shibata, N., Shibayama, K., Kamachi, K., Kurokawa, H., Yokoyama, K., Yagi, T., Arakawa, Y. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Distribution of prophages and SGI-1 antibiotic-resistance genes among different Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates. Hermans, A.P., Beuling, A.M., van Hoek, A.H., Aarts, H.J., Abee, T., Zwietering, M.H. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Detection of sul1, sul2 and sul3 in sulphonamide resistant Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy humans, pork and pigs in Denmark. Hammerum, A.M., Sandvang, D., Andersen, S.R., Seyfarth, A.M., Porsbo, L.J., Frimodt-Møller, N., Heuer, O.E. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Irish isolates of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli)--VTEC. Walsh, C., Duffy, G., O'Mahony, R., Fanning, S., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Resistance to trimethoprim and sulfonamides. Sköld, O. Vet. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli O111 isolates. Guerra, B., Junker, E., Schroeter, A., Helmuth, R., Guth, B.E., Beutin, L. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Spread of Escherichia coli strains with high-level cefotaxime and ceftazidime resistance between the community, long-term care facilities, and hospital institutions. Oteo, J., Navarro, C., Cercenado, E., Delgado-Iribarren, A., Wilhelmi, I., Orden, B., García, C., Miguelañez, S., Pérez-Vázquez, M., García-Cobos, S., Aracil, B., Bautista, V., Campos, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Integron-mediated ESBL resistance in rare serotypes of Escherichia coli causing infections in an elderly population of Israel. Sompolinsky, D., Nitzan, Y., Tetry, S., Wolk, M., Vulikh, I., Kerrn, M.B., Sandvang, D., Hershkovits, G., Katcoff, D.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
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