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Gene Review

pkc-3  -  Protein PKC-3

Caenorhabditis elegans

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High impact information on pkc-3

  • A third gene, pkc-3, gives a similar phenotype when the protein is depleted by RNA interference [1].
  • Four conserved proteins, including a disabled protein (DAB-1), a vav family GEF (VAV-1), a protein kinase C (PKC-1), and a STAM homolog (PQN-19), function with the VAB-1 Eph/MSP receptor in oocytes [2].
  • DKF-1 phosphorylation and activation are unaffected when PKC activity is eliminated by inhibitors [3].
  • Atypical protein kinase C isoforms (aPKCs) transmit regulatory signals to effector proteins located in the cytoplasm, nucleus, cytoskeleton, and membranes [4].
  • However, the modes of action of Munc-18 and PKC in vesicle transport have not been clarified [5].

Biological context of pkc-3

  • Therefore, the phosphorylation by PKC may play a physiological role in the regulation [6].
  • On the other hand, protein kinase C (PKC) stimulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in various types of secretory cells [5].
  • We begin with a brief background on the historical use of phorbol esters as tools to decipher the role of the enzyme protein kinase C in signal transduction cascades [7].

Anatomical context of pkc-3

  • An aPKC member encoded by pkc-3 has been shown to play an essential role in establishing the polarity of the zygote [8].
  • Here, we show that recombinant Munc-18 is phosphorylated by conventional PKC in a Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent manner in a cell-free system [5].
  • A pathway regulated by protein kinase C (PKC1) also responds to changes in osmolarity and cell wall integrity [9].

Associations of pkc-3 with chemical compounds

  • It thus appears that Ca(2+) and PKC are critically involved in GAR-3b-mediated cAMP formation [10].
  • Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by chronic treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by GF109203X decreased carbachol-stimulated cAMP production by as much as 68% [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pkc-3


  1. PAR-6 is a conserved PDZ domain-containing protein that colocalizes with PAR-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Hung, T.J., Kemphues, K.J. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Galphao/i and Galphas signaling function in parallel with the MSP/Eph receptor to control meiotic diapause in C. elegans. Govindan, J.A., Cheng, H., Harris, J.E., Greenstein, D. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of a novel protein kinase D: Caenorhabditis elegans DKF-1 is activated by translocation-phosphorylation and regulates movement and growth in vivo. Feng, H., Ren, M., Wu, S.L., Hall, D.H., Rubin, C.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. A novel adapter protein employs a phosphotyrosine binding domain and exceptionally basic N-terminal domains to capture and localize an atypical protein kinase C: characterization of Caenorhabditis elegans C kinase adapter 1, a protein that avidly binds protein kinase C3. Zhang, L., Wu, S.L., Rubin, C.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorylation of Munc-18/n-Sec1/rbSec1 by protein kinase C: its implication in regulating the interaction of Munc-18/n-Sec1/rbSec1 with syntaxin. Fujita, Y., Sasaki, T., Fukui, K., Kotani, H., Kimura, T., Hata, Y., Südhof, T.C., Scheller, R.H., Takai, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. The synaptic protein UNC-18 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Sassa, T., Ogawa, H., Kimoto, M., Hosono, R. Neurochem. Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Phorbol esters and neurotransmitter release: more than just protein kinase C? Silinsky, E.M., Searl, T.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Protein kinase C isotypes in C. elegans. Tabuse, Y. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of a Novel Gene Family Involved in Osmotic Stress Response in Caenorhabditis elegans. Wheeler, J.M., Thomas, J.H. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Stimulation of cyclic AMP production by the Caenorhabditis elegans muscarinic acetylcholine receptor GAR-3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Park, Y.S., Cho, T.J., Cho, N.J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The tpa-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes two proteins similar to Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase Cs: evidence by complete genomic and complementary DNA sequences of the tpa-1 gene. Sano, T., Tabuse, Y., Nishiwaki, K., Miwa, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Animal models in the study of protein kinase C isozymes. Choi, D.S., Messing, R.O. Methods Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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