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Gene Review

aPKC  -  atypical protein kinase C

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Atypical protein kinase C, CG10261, CG30475, CG42783, DaPKC, ...
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Disease relevance of aPKC


High impact information on aPKC

  • The apical determinants aPKC and dPatj regulate Frizzled-dependent planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye [3].
  • Our data suggest that AurA, aPKC, Numb, and Notch function in a pathway that involved a series of negative genetic interactions [4].
  • Baz/Par-6/aPKC are therefore not essential for axon specification in Drosophila [5].
  • Moreover, we found that these transmembrane proteins differentially regulate the intracellular localization of GSK3beta and aPKC at cell junctions [6].
  • At the postsynapse, aPKC regulates the synaptic cytoskeleton by controlling the extent of Actin-rich and MT-rich areas [7].

Biological context of aPKC


Anatomical context of aPKC

  • Here, we show that Drosophila aPKC zygotic null mutants survive to mid-larval stages, where they exhibit defects in neuroblast and epithelial cell polarity [9].
  • In light of this functional conservation, we examined the potential role of baz and DaPKC in the regulation of oocyte polarity [12].
  • Our analyses reveal germ-line autonomous roles for baz and DaPKC in the establishment of initial anterior-posterior polarity within germ-line cysts and maintenance of oocyte cell fate [12].
  • Here we show that at Drosophila glutamatergic synapses, aPKC controls the formation and structure of synapses by regulating microtubule (MT) dynamics [7].
  • New synaptic bouton formation is disrupted by misregulation of microtubule stability in aPKC mutants [7].

Associations of aPKC with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of aPKC


Regulatory relationships of aPKC

  • In addition, we show that Baz and Par-6 are also expressed at synapses and that their synaptic localization depends on aPKC activity [7].
  • At the presynapse, aPKC regulates the stability of MTs by promoting the association of the MAP1Brelated protein Futsch to MTs [7].
  • Moreover, the phenotypic effect of overexpressing wild-type Crumbs is suppressed by reducing DaPKC activity [19].

Other interactions of aPKC

  • Therefore, whereas BAZ, DaPKC, and PAR-1 are functionally conserved in establishing oocyte polarity, the regulatory relationships among these genes are not well conserved, indicating these molecules function differently in different cellular contexts [12].
  • Expression of a carboxy-terminal fragment plus the third PDZ domain of Par-3 partially rescues junction assembly, but neither Par-6 nor aPKC binding is required [20].
  • DaPKC-dependent phosphorylation of Crumbs is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila [19].
  • Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation [21].
  • Both eye-PKC and DaPKC are differentially localized through tethering to multimolecular complexes [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aPKC


  1. Atypical protein kinase C in neurodegenerative disease I: PKMzeta aggregates with limbic neurofibrillary tangles and AMPA receptors in Alzheimer disease. Crary, J.F., Shao, C.Y., Mirra, S.S., Hernandez, A.I., Sacktor, T.C. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. aPKCzeta cortical loading is associated with Lgl cytoplasmic release and tumor growth in Drosophila and human epithelia. Grifoni, D., Garoia, F., Bellosta, P., Parisi, F., De Biase, D., Collina, G., Strand, D., Cavicchi, S., Pession, A. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. The apical determinants aPKC and dPatj regulate Frizzled-dependent planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye. Djiane, A., Yogev, S., Mlodzik, M. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Aurora-A acts as a tumor suppressor and regulates self-renewal of Drosophila neuroblasts. Wang, H., Somers, G.W., Bashirullah, A., Heberlein, U., Yu, F., Chia, W. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Baz, Par-6 and aPKC are not required for axon or dendrite specification in Drosophila. Rolls, M.M., Doe, C.Q. Nat. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. gamma-Cleavage-Independent Functions of Presenilin, Nicastrin, and Aph-1 Regulate Cell-Junction Organization and Prevent Tau Toxicity In Vivo. Doglio, L.E., Kanwar, R., Jackson, G.R., Perez, M., Avila, J., Dingwall, C., Dotti, C.G., Fortini, M.E., Feiguin, F. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. New synaptic bouton formation is disrupted by misregulation of microtubule stability in aPKC mutants. Ruiz-Canada, C., Ashley, J., Moeckel-Cole, S., Drier, E., Yin, J., Budnik, V. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. aPKC-mediated phosphorylation regulates asymmetric membrane localization of the cell fate determinant Numb. Smith, C.A., Lau, K.M., Rahmani, Z., Dho, S.E., Brothers, G., She, Y.M., Berry, D.M., Bonneil, E., Thibault, P., Schweisguth, F., Le Borgne, R., McGlade, C.J. EMBO J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Drosophila aPKC regulates cell polarity and cell proliferation in neuroblasts and epithelia. Rolls, M.M., Albertson, R., Shih, H.P., Lee, C.Y., Doe, C.Q. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The Drosophila atypical protein kinase C-ref(2)p complex constitutes a conserved module for signaling in the toll pathway. Avila, A., Silverman, N., Diaz-Meco, M.T., Moscat, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Quantitative analysis of protein dynamics during asymmetric cell division. Mayer, B., Emery, G., Berdnik, D., Wirtz-Peitz, F., Knoblich, J.A. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Bazooka and atypical protein kinase C are required to regulate oocyte differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Cox, D.N., Seyfried, S.A., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. A polarity complex of mPar-6 and atypical PKC binds, phosphorylates and regulates mammalian Lgl. Plant, P.J., Fawcett, J.P., Lin, D.C., Holdorf, A.D., Binns, K., Kulkarni, S., Pawson, T. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Atypical PKC phosphorylates PAR-1 kinases to regulate localization and activity. Hurov, J.B., Watkins, J.L., Piwnica-Worms, H. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A conserved oligomerization domain in drosophila Bazooka/PAR-3 is important for apical localization and epithelial polarity. Benton, R., St Johnston, D. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. Harris, T.J., Peifer, M. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Lethal giant larvae controls the localization of notch-signaling regulators numb, neuralized, and Sanpodo in Drosophila sensory-organ precursor cells. Langevin, J., Le Borgne, R., Rosenfeld, F., Gho, M., Schweisguth, F., Bellaïche, Y. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Dap160/intersectin binds and activates aPKC to regulate cell polarity and cell cycle progression. Chabu, C., Doe, C.Q. Development (2008) [Pubmed]
  19. DaPKC-dependent phosphorylation of Crumbs is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila. Sotillos, S., Díaz-Meco, M.T., Caminero, E., Moscat, J., Campuzano, S. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Par-3 controls tight junction assembly through the Rac exchange factor Tiam1. Chen, X., Macara, I.G. Nat. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Lee, C.Y., Robinson, K.J., Doe, C.Q. Nature (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Drosophila. Shieh, B.H., Parker, L., Popescu, D. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Computer modelling in combination with in vitro studies reveals similar binding affinities of Drosophila Crumbs for the PDZ domains of Stardust and DmPar-6. Kempkens, O., Médina, E., Fernandez-Ballester, G., Ozüyaman, S., Le Bivic, A., Serrano, L., Knust, E. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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