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Gene Review

NPCDR1  -  nasopharyngeal carcinoma, down-regulated 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: NPCDRG, NPCR, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma down-regulated gene protein 1, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-related gene protein
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Disease relevance of NPCDR1

  • The NPCR, obtained by dividing the PCR by body weight (itself a nutritional measure), is lowest in well-nourished or obese patients, and thus as a marker of nutrition may be flawed [1].
  • Nested PCR (NPCR), a two-step procedure in which the products of a first PCR using 'outer' primers are reamplified using 'inner primers', has been successfully used to test for the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-specific bcr-abl transcripts [2].
  • NPCR, GN, Kt/V urea, total creatinine clearance, residual renal clearance, and peritoneal urea and creatinine clearances were determined in 29 stable peritoneal dialysis patients with no history of recent peritonitis or other catabolic illness [3].
  • To evaluate the overall fidelity of these two combined techniques, genomic RNA of a different CVB3 Nancy strain stock, Coxsackievirus A9 or poliovirus sabin 1 was amplified and the NPCR products sequenced [4].
  • These results demonstrate that the coupled technique of the enterovirus RT-NPCR with direct sequencing of NPCR products generates accurate consensus sequence data and this technique proved to be useful in verification of enteroviral amplicons and in detection of nucleotide mutations [4].

High impact information on NPCDR1

  • The use of random samples from independent normal distributions of K, V, and urea generation rate (G) for the calculation of KT/V and NPCR reveals that a statistical association is introduced when both protein intake and dialysis dose are normalized proportional to a common distribution V [5].
  • We monitored dialysis adequacy and nutritional indices, including Kt/V, weekly creatinine clearance (CCr), residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR), percentage of lean body mass (%LBM), and plasma albumin level [6].
  • In this paper, the application of a new protocol for NPCR without reopening the reaction tube between the two steps of the procedure is described for the research of residual leukemic cells in the peripheral blood of 14 CML patients treated by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or interferon (IFN) [2].
  • Urea kinetic model (UKM) (urea weekly (W) Kt/V and NPCR) and creatinine kinetics (Efficacy number (EN) and K) were determined annually [7].
  • In order to verify the viral nucleotide sequence and detect the mutation frequency of the viral RNA, the nucleotide sequence of NPCR products were determined by direct sequencing in both orientations [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of NPCDR1


Biological context of NPCDR1

  • As an equivalent of NPCR we measured normalised urea generation rate (NUGR) by a one-week collection of dialysate and urine using total body water estimated by bioelectrical impedance for normalisation [9].
  • The other PCR technique was a nested PCR (NPCR) using double amplification of a fragment of the insertion element IS6110 only present in the M. tuberculosis genome [10].
  • Once that state is defined, and desirable protein and calorie intakes are determined, NPCR can be used to monitor the patient's ability to maintain homeostasis [11].
  • Clinical specificity was 47% for NPCR, 79% for pp65 antigen detection, 66% for RCC, and 68% for IgM serology [12].

Anatomical context of NPCDR1


Associations of NPCDR1 with chemical compounds

  • Normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR), daily protein leak (PL), urea and creatinine Kt/Vs, clearances and peritoneal mass transfer coefficients (Kp) were calculated from measurements on serum, 24-h urine and PD fluid effluent [14].
  • Subsequent analysis of the data indicated a nonlinear relationship between serum CO2 and NPCR [15].
  • The metabolic index was analyzed: normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR), serum albumin (Alb) and prealbumin, and reabsorption of glucose [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPCDR1

  • Furthermore, proviral DNA was detected by nested PCR (NPCR) in limiting dilution assays of FACS-purified FDCs (up to 1.0 x 10(4) cells) in only one cell fraction [17].
  • This article demonstrates a purely statistical association between the two parameters--protein intake, expressed as normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR), and dialysis dose quantified as KT/V [the product of urea clearance (K) and treatment time (T) divided by the distribution volume of urea (V)] in peritoneal dialysis [5].
  • However, the NPCR value has not been consistently predictive of outcome in CAPD patients [1].
  • We have performed a cross sectional study on 147 clinically stable CAPD patients, who had a mean dialysis duration 22 months, to evaluate the relationship between the NPCR and conventional markers of nutrition [1].
  • Because of this practice, reduced t is often associated with inadequate dialysis, and kinetic modeling of the interrelationship between blood urea nitrogen (BUN), NPCR, and Kt/V is required to assure adequate dialysis with reduced t [18].


  1. The normalized protein catabolic rate is a flawed marker of nutrition in CAPD patients. Harty, J.C., Boulton, H., Curwell, J., Heelis, N., Uttley, L., Venning, M.C., Gokal, R. Kidney Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Application of a new protocol for nested PCR to the detection of minimal residual bcr/abl transcripts. Frenoy, N., Chabli, A., Sol, O., Goldschmit, E., Lemonnier, M.P., Misset, J.L., Debuire, B. Leukemia (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Relationships between dialysis quantification and normalized protein catabolic rate in peritoneal dialysis. Mactier, R.A., Perry, M., Henderson, I.S. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterisation of genomic RNA of Coxsackievirus B3 in murine myocarditis: reliability of direct sequencing of reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction products. Zhang, H., Soteriou, B., Knowlson, S., Theodoridou, A., Archard, L.C. J. Virol. Methods (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Another look at the relationship between protein intake and dialysis dose. Uehlinger, D.E. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Importance of dialysis adequacy in mortality and morbidity of chinese CAPD patients. Szeto, C.C., Wong, T.Y., Leung, C.B., Wang, A.Y., Law, M.C., Lui, S.F., Li, P.K. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. An analysis of adequacy of dialysis in a selected population on CAPD for over 3 years: the influence of urea and creatinine kinetics. Selgas, R., Bajo, M.A., Fernandez-Reyes, M.J., Bosque, E., Lopez-Revuelta, K., Jimenez, C., Borrego, F., de Alvaro, F. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Dialysis adequacy in hypoalbuminemic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Spinowitz, B.S., Gupta, B.K., Kulogowski, J., Charytan, C. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. The correlation between protein catabolic rate and Kt/V in hemodialysis is not a mathematical artifact. Buur, T., Smye, S.W., Bradbury, M., Will, E.J. The International journal of artificial organs. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Contribution of the polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis of tuberculous infections in children. Fauville-Dufaux, M., Waelbroeck, A., De Mol, P., Vanfleteren, B., Levy, J., Debusschere, P., Farber, C.M. Eur. J. Pediatr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The significance of protein intake and catabolism. Flanigan, M.J., Lim, V.S., Redlin, J. Advances in renal replacement therapy. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Laboratory diagnosis of HCMV-related disease in renal transplant patients - pp65 antigen detection versus nested PCR. Meyer-König, U., Serr, A., Hufert, F.T., Strik, M., Kirste, G., Haller, O., Neumann-Haefelin, D. Clinical and diagnostic virology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Investigations on autologous T-cells for adoptive immunotherapy of AIDS. van Lunzen, J., Schmitz, J., Dengler, K., Kuhlmann, C., Schmitz, H., Dietrich, M. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Kinetic modelling and underdialysis in CAPD patients. Tattersall, J.E., Doyle, S., Greenwood, R.N., Farrington, K. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Serum bicarbonate is an independent determinant of protein catabolic rate in chronic hemodialysis. Bastani, B., McNeely, M., Schmitz, P.G. American journal of nephrology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Quantification of adequacy of peritoneal dialysis. Arkouche, W., Delawari, E., My, H., Laville, M., Abdullah, E., Traeger, J. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Follicular dendritic cells retain HIV-1 particles on their plasma membrane, but are not productively infected in asymptomatic patients with follicular hyperplasia. Schmitz, J., van Lunzen, J., Tenner-Racz, K., Grossschupff, G., Racz, P., Schmitz, H., Dietrich, M., Hufert, F.T. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. A kinetic survey of US hemodialysis prescriptions. Gotch, F.A., Yarian, S., Keen, M. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
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