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Gene Review

Msx2  -  msh homeobox 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Homeobox protein Hox-8-1, Homeobox protein MSX-2, Msx-2
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Disease relevance of Msx2


High impact information on Msx2

  • We detected a series of related specific protein-DNA interactions, a subset of which were inhibited by antibodies directed against the Msx-1 homeodomain but which also recognize the Msx-2 homeodomain [2].
  • These data suggest that Msx-2 may play a role in the transcriptional regulation of the osteoblast phenotype during development in the morphogenetic fields where it is expressed [1].
  • We have found and cloned a cDNA for rat Msx-2 (Hox 8.1) from a ROS 17/2.8 library and detect high levels of expression in various osteoblastic cell lines (ROS 17/2.8, RCT3, RCT1) as well as in culture passage 3 neonatal rat calvarial osteoblastic cells [1].
  • Dexamethasone (DEX) down-regulates Msx-2 message levels in both RCT3 and ROS 17/2.8 cells [1].
  • Treatment of TAK-778 (10(-7)-10(-5) M) for 4 h resulted in an increase in the mRNA expression of Msx2, but not Cbfa1 or Dlx5 [3].

Biological context of Msx2


Anatomical context of Msx2

  • Several factors such as Twist, Msx2, fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs), bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) and transforming growth factors-beta (Tgf-betas) regulate suture patency, likely by interacting with one another [7].

Regulatory relationships of Msx2

  • It is known that AJ18 and Msx2 act as repressors to inhibit activity of Runx2, whereas Dlx5 promotes its activity [5].

Other interactions of Msx2


  1. Msx-2/Hox 8.1: a transcriptional regulator of the rat osteocalcin promoter. Towler, D.A., Rutledge, S.J., Rodan, G.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcriptional control of the tissue-specific, developmentally regulated osteocalcin gene requires a binding motif for the Msx family of homeodomain proteins. Hoffmann, H.M., Catron, K.M., van Wijnen, A.J., McCabe, L.R., Lian, J.B., Stein, G.S., Stein, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Enhancement of osteogenesis in vitro by a novel osteoblast differentiation-promoting compound, TAK-778, partly through the expression of Msx2. Gotoh, M., Notoya, K., Ienaga, Y., Kawase, M., Makino, H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Tgf-beta1, Tgf-beta2, Tgf-beta3 and Msx2 expression is elevated during frontonasal suture morphogenesis and during active postnatal facial growth. Adab, K., Sayne, J.R., Carlson, D.S., Opperman, L.A. Orthodontics & craniofacial research. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Autoregulatory mechanism of Runx2 through the expression of transcription factors and bone matrix proteins in multipotential mesenchymal cell line, ROB-C26. Takahashi, T., Kato, S., Suzuki, N., Kawabata, N., Takagi, M. Journal of oral science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Apoptosis during bone-like tissue development in vitro. Lynch, M.P., Capparelli, C., Stein, J.L., Stein, G.S., Lian, J.B. J. Cell. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Transforming growth factor-beta3 (Tgf-beta3) down-regulates Tgf-beta3 receptor type I (Tbetar-I) during rescue of cranial sutures from osseous obliteration. Opperman, L.A., Galanis, V., Williams, A.R., Adab, K. Orthodontics & craniofacial research. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor beta1 on gene expression of transcription factors, AJ18 and Runx2 in cultured osteoblastic cells. Takagi, M., Kamiya, N., Takahashi, T., Ito, S., Hasegawa, M., Suzuki, N., Nakanishi, K. J. Mol. Histol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Regional dura mater differentially regulates osteoblast gene expression. Warren, S.M., Greenwald, J.A., Nacamuli, R.P., Fong, K.D., Song, H.J., Fang, T.D., Mathy, J.A., Longaker, M.T. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. (2003) [Pubmed]
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