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MeSH Review

Cranial Sutures

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Disease relevance of Cranial Sutures


Psychiatry related information on Cranial Sutures


High impact information on Cranial Sutures


Chemical compound and disease context of Cranial Sutures


Biological context of Cranial Sutures


Anatomical context of Cranial Sutures


Associations of Cranial Sutures with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: Computed tomographic scans demonstrated erosion of the inner table of the cranium and sclerosis of the cranial sutures, particularly the coronal suture [22].
  • Error estimation of the fractal dimension measurements of cranial sutures [23].
  • METHODS: Serial 3D ultrasound examinations were evaluated for visibility of fetal cranial sutures and fontanels, image quality and possible influencing parameters in the second half of pregnancy [24].
  • We therefore investigated whether or not the cranial sutures show accelerated closure and how the local growth factors or cytokines participate and function in local bone metabolism after administration of exogenous excess thyroid hormone in a rat model [25].
  • Cranial suture morphology was examined in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and in cleared whole-mount specimens, double stained with alizarin red S and Alcian blue [26].

Gene context of Cranial Sutures

  • We compare Dlx5 expression pattern with that of several genes involved in mouse cranial suture regulation [27].
  • Coincidently, blocking of the Erk pathway also significantly retarded FGF2-accelerated cranial suture closure [28].
  • Twist1 dimer selection regulates cranial suture patterning and fusion [29].
  • Heterozygous Bey mice are viable and fertile but show facial shortening with increased interorbital distance and precocious closure of several cranial sutures (craniosynostosis) [30].
  • Transcript analysis demonstrates that expression of both Fgf3 and Fgf4 is up-regulated in the cranial sutures of Bey mice [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cranial Sutures


  1. The BMP antagonist noggin regulates cranial suture fusion. Warren, S.M., Brunet, L.J., Harland, R.M., Economides, A.N., Longaker, M.T. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Twist haploinsufficiency in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome induces calvarial osteoblast apoptosis due to increased TNFalpha expression and caspase-2 activation. Yousfi, M., Lasmoles, F., El Ghouzzi, V., Marie, P.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Human NELL-1 expressed in unilateral coronal synostosis. Ting, K., Vastardis, H., Mulliken, J.B., Soo, C., Tieu, A., Do, H., Kwong, E., Bertolami, C.N., Kawamoto, H., Kuroda, S., Longaker, M.T. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Autonomous thyroid nodules in adolescents: clinical characteristics and results of TRH testing. Osburne, R.C., Goren, E.N., Bybee, D.E., Johnsonbaugh, R.E. J. Pediatr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Crouzon's disease correlates with low fibroblastic growth factor receptor activity in stenosed cranial sutures. Bresnick, S., Schendel, S. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of fetal craniosynostosis. Delahaye, S., Bernard, J.P., Rénier, D., Ville, Y. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Craniosynostosis in transgenic mice overexpressing Nell-1. Zhang, X., Kuroda, S., Carpenter, D., Nishimura, I., Soo, C., Moats, R., Iida, K., Wisner, E., Hu, F.Y., Miao, S., Beanes, S., Dang, C., Vastardis, H., Longaker, M., Tanizawa, K., Kanayama, N., Saito, N., Ting, K. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. A gain-of-function mutation of Fgfr2c demonstrates the roles of this receptor variant in osteogenesis. Eswarakumar, V.P., Horowitz, M.C., Locklin, R., Morriss-Kay, G.M., Lonai, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects. Desai, J., Shannon, M.E., Johnson, M.D., Ruff, D.W., Hughes, L.A., Kerley, M.K., Carpenter, D.A., Johnson, D.K., Rinchik, E.M., Culiat, C.T. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Conditional inactivation of Tgfbr2 in cranial neural crest causes cleft palate and calvaria defects. Ito, Y., Yeo, J.Y., Chytil, A., Han, J., Bringas, P., Nakajima, A., Shuler, C.F., Moses, H.L., Chai, Y. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Plain film and CT observations in prostaglandin-induced bone changes. Matzinger, M.A., Briggs, V.A., Dunlap, H.J., Udjus, K., Martin, D.J., McDonald, P. Pediatric radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Craniosynostosis: genes and mechanisms. Wilkie, A.O. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. A nonsense mutation in the cathepsin K gene observed in a family with pycnodysostosis. Johnson, M.R., Polymeropoulos, M.H., Vos, H.L., Ortiz de Luna, R.I., Francomano, C.A. Genome Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Regional differentiation of cranial suture-associated dura mater in vivo and in vitro: implications for suture fusion and patency. Greenwald, J.A., Mehrara, B.J., Spector, J.A., Warren, S.M., Crisera, F.E., Fagenholz, P.J., Bouletreau, P.J., Longaker, M.T. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential expression patterns of Runx2 isoforms in cranial suture morphogenesis. Park, M.H., Shin, H.I., Choi, J.Y., Nam, S.H., Kim, Y.J., Kim, H.J., Ryoo, H.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Studies in cranial suture biology: Part I. Increased immunoreactivity for TGF-beta isoforms (beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3) during rat cranial suture fusion. Roth, D.A., Longaker, M.T., McCarthy, J.G., Rosen, D.M., McMullen, H.F., Levine, J.P., Sung, J., Gold, L.I. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of N-cadherin and protein kinase C in osteoblast gene activation induced by the S252W fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation in Apert craniosynostosis. Lemonnier, J., Haÿ, E., Delannoy, P., Lomri, A., Modrowski, D., Caverzasio, J., Marie, P.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Sox9 neural crest determinant gene controls patterning and closure of the posterior frontal cranial suture. Sahar, D.E., Longaker, M.T., Quarto, N. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Runx2 regulates FGF2-induced Bmp2 expression during cranial bone development. Choi, K.Y., Kim, H.J., Lee, M.H., Kwon, T.G., Nah, H.D., Furuichi, T., Komori, T., Nam, S.H., Kim, Y.J., Kim, H.J., Ryoo, H.M. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Spatio-temporal expression of FGFR 1, 2 and 3 genes during human embryo-fetal ossification. Delezoide, A.L., Benoist-Lasselin, C., Legeai-Mallet, L., Le Merrer, M., Munnich, A., Vekemans, M., Bonaventure, J. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 in the normal human fetal orbit. Khan, S.H., Britto, J.A., Evans, R.D., Nischal, K.K. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Slit-ventricle syndrome secondary to shunt-induced suture ossification. Albright, A.L., Tyler-Kabara, E. Neurosurgery (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Error estimation of the fractal dimension measurements of cranial sutures. Górski, A.Z., Skrzat, J. J. Anat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. The role of three-dimensional ultrasound in visualizing the fetal cranial sutures and fontanels during the second half of pregnancy. Dikkeboom, C.M., Roelfsema, N.M., Van Adrichem, L.N., Wladimiroff, J.W. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of IGF-I in the calvarial suture of young rats: histochemical analysis of the cranial sagittal sutures in a hyperthyroid rat model. Akita, S., Hirano, A., Fujii, T. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Craniosynostosis and altered patterns of fetal TGF-beta expression induced by intrauterine constraint. Kirschner, R.E., Gannon, F.H., Xu, J., Wang, J., Karmacharya, J., Bartlett, S.P., Whitaker, L.A. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. BMP signals regulate Dlx5 during early avian skull development. Holleville, N., Quilhac, A., Bontoux, M., Monsoro-Burq, A.H. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Erk pathway and activator protein 1 play crucial roles in FGF2-stimulated premature cranial suture closure. Kim, H.J., Lee, M.H., Park, H.S., Park, M.H., Lee, S.W., Kim, S.Y., Choi, J.Y., Shin, H.I., Kim, H.J., Ryoo, H.M. Dev. Dyn. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Twist1 dimer selection regulates cranial suture patterning and fusion. Connerney, J., Andreeva, V., Leshem, Y., Muentener, C., Mercado, M.A., Spicer, D.B. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Crouzon-like craniofacial dysmorphology in the mouse is caused by an insertional mutation at the Fgf3/Fgf4 locus. Carlton, M.B., Colledge, W.H., Evans, M.J. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Tissue-engineered rabbit cranial suture from autologous fibroblasts and BMP2. Hong, L., Mao, J.J. J. Dent. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunolocalization of basic fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 and receptor-2 in rat cranial sutures. Mehrara, B.J., Mackool, R.J., McCarthy, J.G., Gittes, G.K., Longaker, M.T. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Craniosynostosis in Twist heterozygous mice: a model for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Carver, E.A., Oram, K.F., Gridley, T. Anat. Rec. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Noggin underexpression and runx-2 overexpression in a craniosynostosis rabbit model. Gabbay, J.S., Heller, J., Spoon, D.B., Mooney, M., Acarturk, O., Askari, M., Wasson, K.L., Bradley, J.P. Annals of plastic surgery. (2006) [Pubmed]
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