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Gene Review

DSG1  -  desmoglein 1

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Disease relevance of DSG1

  • A monoclonal antibody to the desmosomal glycoprotein desmoglein I binds the same polypeptide as human autoantibodies in pemphigus foliaceus [1].
  • On the other hand, some pemphigus foliaceus (Pf) sera exhibited reactivity with a 150-kD protein, which is most likely desmoglein I, in both the human epidermal extract and the bovine desmosome preparation, but no Pf serum reacted with this antigen in the squamous carcinoma cell extract [2].
  • Four kinds of anti-GD3 monoclonal antibodies, DSG-1, -2, -3, and -4, of the IgM class were obtained by the immunization of BALB/c mice with enzootic bovine leukosis tumor tissue-derived ganglioside GD3 inserted into liposomes with Salmonella minnesota R595 lipopolysaccharides [3].

High impact information on DSG1

  • Finally, PF sera as well as PF IgG that was affinity purified with PF antigen from normal human epidermis, both selectively bound to DGI extracted from bovine muzzle desmosomes [4].
  • In this study we demonstrate that autoantibodies from certain PF patients bind to a desmosomal core glycoprotein called desmoglein (DG) I [4].
  • The extracellular domain of dg3 shows 39.4% protein sequence identity with bovine N-cadherin and 28.4% identity with the other major desmosomal glycoprotein, dg1, or desmoglein [5].
  • The two major glycoprotein families (DGI and DGII/III) were both found to be synthesized with co-translational addition of 2-4 high mannose cores later processed into complex type chains [6].
  • Identification of amino acid sequence motifs in desmocollin, a desmosomal glycoprotein, that are required for plakoglobin binding and plaque formation [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of DSG1

  • The major antibody binding regions of desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) in pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris were examined using cDNA-encoded fusion proteins combining glutathione S-transferase with various domains of bovine Dsg1, namely, the extracellular regions EC1-2, EC3-5, EC1-5, and the entire intracellular region IC [8].

Biological context of DSG1

  • Using one of these antibodies (DG3.10), a peptide was isolated from a proteolytic digest of desmoglein purified from isolated bovine muzzle demosomes, and its amino acid sequence was determined [9].
  • We conclude that desmoglein is a member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion glycoproteins which is characterized by an unusually long cytoplasmic domain which exceeds those of the cadherins by more than 275 amino acids, contains special repetitive elements and spans the desmosomal plaque at least once [9].
  • This topological information, together with the identification of a single hydrophobic region of sufficient length to provide a transmembrane segment and of several extended regions showing high sequence homology to various cadherins, has allowed the construction of a model of the molecular organization of desmoglein [9].
  • The isolation of the complete cDNA has allowed the cloning of a desmoglein cDNA construct, which under the control of the human beta-actin promoter, was successfully used in cell transfection [10].
  • T1alpha expression is markedly inhibited in both DG1 and DG4 cultures, consistent with both inhibition and reversal of the transition toward the AT1 cell phenotype [11].

Anatomical context of DSG1


Associations of DSG1 with chemical compounds

  • Expression of desmoglein and transglutaminase was increased by Ca2+ stimulation, whereas beta1 integrin expression was decreased in response to increasing concentrations of Ca2+ [16].

Other interactions of DSG1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DSG1


  1. A monoclonal antibody to the desmosomal glycoprotein desmoglein I binds the same polypeptide as human autoantibodies in pemphigus foliaceus. Stanley, J.R., Koulu, L., Klaus-Kovtun, V., Steinberg, M.S. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus antigens by immunoblot analysis using different antigen sources. Hashimoto, T., Ogawa, M.M., Konohana, A., Nishikawa, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific for ganglioside GD3. Watarai, S., Onuma, M., Yasuda, T. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Human autoantibodies against a desmosomal core protein in pemphigus foliaceus. Koulu, L., Kusumi, A., Steinberg, M.S., Klaus-Kovtun, V., Stanley, J.R. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of desmosomal glycoproteins 2 and 3 (desmocollins): cadherin-like desmosomal adhesion molecules with heterogeneous cytoplasmic domains. Collins, J.E., Legan, P.K., Kenny, T.P., MacGarvie, J., Holton, J.L., Garrod, D.R. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure and assembly of desmosome junctions: biosynthesis, processing, and transport of the major protein and glycoprotein components in cultured epithelial cells. Penn, E.J., Hobson, C., Rees, D.A., Magee, A.I. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of amino acid sequence motifs in desmocollin, a desmosomal glycoprotein, that are required for plakoglobin binding and plaque formation. Troyanovsky, S.M., Troyanovsky, R.B., Eshkind, L.G., Leube, R.E., Franke, W.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. The extracellular aminoterminal domain of bovine desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) is recognized only by certain pemphigus foliaceus sera, whereas its intracellular domain is recognized by both pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus sera. Dmochowski, M., Hashimoto, T., Amagai, M., Kudoh, J., Shimizu, N., Koch, P.J., Franke, W.W., Nishikawa, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of desmoglein, a constitutive desmosomal glycoprotein, as a member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules. Koch, P.J., Walsh, M.J., Schmelz, M., Goldschmidt, M.D., Zimbelmann, R., Franke, W.W. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Complete amino acid sequence of the epidermal desmoglein precursor polypeptide and identification of a second type of desmoglein gene. Koch, P.J., Goldschmidt, M.D., Walsh, M.J., Zimbelmann, R., Franke, W.W. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of t1alpha expression with alveolar epithelial cell phenotype in vitro. Borok, Z., Danto, S.I., Lubman, R.L., Cao, Y., Williams, M.C., Crandall, E.D. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure of DSG1, the bovine desmosomal cadherin gene encoding the pemphigus foliaceus antigen. Evidence of polymorphism. Puttagunta, S., Mathur, M., Cowin, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Desmoglein shows extensive homology to the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules. Goodwin, L., Hill, J.E., Raynor, K., Raszi, L., Manabe, M., Cowin, P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Complexity and expression patterns of the desmosomal cadherins. Koch, P.J., Goldschmidt, M.D., Zimbelmann, R., Troyanovsky, R., Franke, W.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Interactions of the cytoplasmic domain of the desmosomal cadherin Dsg1 with plakoglobin. Mathur, M., Goodwin, L., Cowin, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of desmosomal proteins in rat keratinocytes during in vitro differentiation. Mochizuki, R., Kamiyama, M., Arai, K.Y., Arai, K., Uehara, K. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Amino acid sequence of bovine muzzle epithelial desmocollin derived from cloned cDNA: a novel subtype of desmosomal cadherins. Koch, P.J., Goldschmidt, M.D., Walsh, M.J., Zimbelmann, R., Schmelz, M., Franke, W.W. Differentiation (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Pemphigus foliaceus sera recognize an N-terminal fragment of bovine desmoglein 1. Olague-Alcala, M., Giudice, G.J., Diaz, L.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Atypical pemphigus associated with monoclonal IgA gammopathy. Miyagawa, S., Hashimoto, T., Ohno, H., Nakagawa, A., Watanabe, K., Nishikawa, T., Shirai, T. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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