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Gene Review

Grik3  -  glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 3

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: GluK3, GluR-7, GluR7, Glur7, Glutamate receptor 7, ...
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High impact information on Grik3

  • In particular, glutamate exhibits a 10-fold lower potency for (non-desensitized) GluR7-mediated currents as compared to other non-NMDA receptor channels [1].
  • The low-affinity kainate receptor subunit GluR7 was found to be nonfunctional in previous studies [1].
  • These data will facilitate understanding of the distinct role played by GluR7 receptors in synaptic transmission [1].
  • However, AVPV neurons do not seem to express detectable levels of kainate receptor (GluR5, GluR6, and GluR7) or metabotropic receptor (mGluR1-6) subtypes [2].
  • The distribution of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) was studied in the rat retina using a specific antiserum [3].

Anatomical context of Grik3

  • The GluR-7 gene is prominently expressed in the inner neocortical layers and some cells in layer II, subiculum, caudate-putamen, reticular thalamus, ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus, pontine nuclei, and in putative stellate/basket cells in the cerebellum [4].
  • In contrast, GluR7 was strongly expressed in the substantia nigra pars compacta, was present at lower levels in the striatum, globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and was not detectable in the subthalamic nucleus [5].
  • Single-cell RT-PCR showed relative abundances of mRNAs for the KA receptors, GluR5, GluR6 and GluR7, of 12, 33 and 54% for cortical neurones and 38, 10 and 54% for spinal cord neurones, respectively [6].
  • However, none of these changes persisted at long-term after the last seizure and only the low-abundant GluR-7 expression was slightly depressed in the fascia dentata [7].
  • Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 mRNA and mGluR7a protein in the rat basal ganglia [8].

Associations of Grik3 with chemical compounds

  • Treatment with a high dose of corticosterone (1 mg/100 g bodyweight) yielded expression levels which were significantly lower than those observed in animals treated with a low corticosterone dose, for the KAR1, KAR2 and GluR7 subunit mRNAs; the levels did not differ from those in untreated rats or in the sham group [9].

Other interactions of Grik3

  • Lamina I contained occasional cells expressing the GluR-5 gene, whereas GluR-7 mRNA was present in scattered cells in all superficial laminae [10].
  • Only the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 and the kainate receptor subunit GluR7 were not found to be expressed in vestibulocochlear neurons [11].
  • All four AMPA subunits and GluR6 and GluR7 mRNAs were expressed highly in the perinuclear PVN region and the subparaventricular zone [12].
  • Immunolocalization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 in the rat olfactory bulb [13].
  • GluR3-GluR7 have more limited distributions, indicative of expression by only a subset of neurons [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grik3


  1. Rat GluR7 and a carboxy-terminal splice variant, GluR7b, are functional kainate receptor subunits with a low sensitivity to glutamate. Schiffer, H.H., Swanson, G.T., Heinemann, S.F. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Hormonal regulation of glutamate receptor gene expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Gu, G., Varoqueaux, F., Simerly, R.B. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Compartmental localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR7): two different active sites at a retinal synapse. Brandstätter, J.H., Koulen, P., Kuhn, R., van der Putten, H., Wässle, H. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. A complex mosaic of high-affinity kainate receptors in rat brain. Wisden, W., Seeburg, P.H. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential expression of kainate receptors in the basal ganglia of the developing and adult rat brain. Wüllner, U., Standaert, D.G., Testa, C.M., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Correlation of the expression of kainate receptor subtypes to responses evoked in cultured cortical and spinal cord neurones. Dai, W.M., Christensen, K.V., Egebjerg, J., Ebert, B., Lambert, J.D. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor gene expression in hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in the kindling model of epileptogenesis. Kamphuis, W., Hendriksen, H., Diegenbach, P.C., Lopes da Silva, F.H. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 mRNA and mGluR7a protein in the rat basal ganglia. Kosinski, C.M., Risso Bradley, S., Conn, P.J., Levey, A.I., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B., Standaert, D.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Corticosteroid actions on the expression of kainate receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampus. Joëls, M., Bosma, A., Hendriksen, H., Diegenbach, P., Kamphuis, W. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. The differential expression of 16 NMDA and non-NMDA receptor subunits in the rat spinal cord and in periaqueductal gray. Tölle, T.R., Berthele, A., Zieglgänsberger, W., Seeburg, P.H., Wisden, W. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subunits in cochlear and vestibular ganglia. Niedzielski, A.S., Wenthold, R.J. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit mRNAs in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat. Herman, J.P., Eyigor, O., Ziegler, D.R., Jennes, L. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunolocalization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 in the rat olfactory bulb. Kinzie, J.M., Shinohara, M.M., van den Pol, A.N., Westbrook, G.L., Segerson, T.P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of glutamate receptor genes in the mammalian retina: the localization of GluR1 through GluR7 mRNAs. Hamassaki-Britto, D.E., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Heinemann, S., Hughes, T.E. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of kainate-preferring glutamate receptor subunit GluR7 mRNA and protein in the rat median eminence. Eyigor, O., Jennes, L. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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