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Chemical Compound Review

Kainate     (2S,3S,4S)-3-(carboxymethyl)- 4-prop-1-en-2...

Synonyms: Helminal, Digenin, Kainsaeure, Digensaeure, UPCMLD-DP146, ...
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Disease relevance of Digenic acid


Psychiatry related information on Digenic acid


High impact information on Digenic acid

  • Our results provide evidence that JNP is dispensable for mouse development, and identify c-Jun as the essential substrate of JNK signalling during kainate-induced neuronal apoptosis [1].
  • GLP-1R-deficient mice also have enhanced seizure severity and neuronal injury after kainate administration, with an intermediate phenotype in heterozygotes and phenotypic correction after Glp1r gene transfer in hippocampal somatic cells [9].
  • Systemic administration of [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) in wild-type animals prevents kainate-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons [9].
  • There are three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptor, namely NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) and kainate receptors; critical roles in synaptic plasticity have been identified for two of these [10].
  • Recent work on the physiological function of kainate receptors has focused on the hippocampus, where repetitive activation of the mossy-fibre pathway generates a slow, kainate-receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Digenic acid


Biological context of Digenic acid


Anatomical context of Digenic acid


Associations of Digenic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Digenic acid

  • Some of the subtypes are also coupled to inward rectifying K(+) channels (SSTR2, 3, 4, 5), to voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (SSTR1, 2), a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (SSTR1), AMPA/kainate glutamate channels (SSTR1, 2), phospholipase C (SSTR2, 5), and phospholipase A(2) (SSTR4) [28].
  • The coexpression of GluR-K2 with either GluR-K3 or GluR-K1 results in the formation of channels whose current-voltage relationships differ from those of the individual subunits alone and more closely approximate the properties of kainate receptors in neurons [29].
  • SAP90 binds and clusters kainate receptors causing incomplete desensitization [30].
  • Transcripts of the GluR7 gene are evident in brain areas that bind [3H]kainate and are susceptible to kainate-induced neurotoxicity [31].
  • Rapid and differential regulation of AMPA and kainate receptors at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses by PICK1 and GRIP [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Digenic acid


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  2. Oligodendrocytes from forebrain are highly vulnerable to AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. McDonald, J.W., Althomsons, S.P., Hyrc, K.L., Choi, D.W., Goldberg, M.P. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Glutamate excitotoxicity in a model of multiple sclerosis. Pitt, D., Werner, P., Raine, C.S. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Developmental and activity-dependent regulation of kainate receptors at thalamocortical synapses. Kidd, F.L., Isaac, J.T. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytogenetic and genetic evidence supports a role for the kainate-type glutamate receptor gene, GRIK4, in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Pickard, B.S., Malloy, M.P., Christoforou, A., Thomson, P.A., Evans, K.L., Morris, S.W., Hampson, M., Porteous, D.J., Blackwood, D.H., Muir, W.J. Mol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Targeting specific PDZ domains of PSD-95; structural basis for enhanced affinity and enzymatic stability of a cyclic peptide. Piserchio, A., Salinas, G.D., Li, T., Marshall, J., Spaller, M.R., Mierke, D.F. Chem. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhancement of central dopaminergic activity in the kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy: implication for the mechanism of epileptic psychosis. Ando, N., Morimoto, K., Watanabe, T., Ninomiya, T., Suwaki, H. Neuropsychopharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterisation, density, and distribution of kainate receptors in normal and Alzheimer's diseased human brain. Cowburn, R.F., Hardy, J.A., Briggs, R.S., Roberts, P.J. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection. During, M.J., Cao, L., Zuzga, D.S., Francis, J.S., Fitzsimons, H.L., Jiao, X., Bland, R.J., Klugmann, M., Banks, W.A., Drucker, D.J., Haile, C.N. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Kainate receptors are involved in synaptic plasticity. Bortolotto, Z.A., Clarke, V.R., Delany, C.M., Parry, M.C., Smolders, I., Vignes, M., Ho, K.H., Miu, P., Brinton, B.T., Fantaske, R., Ogden, A., Gates, M., Ornstein, P.L., Lodge, D., Bleakman, D., Collingridge, G.L. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Kainate-receptor-mediated sensory synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord. Li, P., Wilding, T.J., Kim, S.J., Calejesan, A.A., Huettner, J.E., Zhuo, M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Neurons containing NADPH-diaphorase are selectively resistant to quinolinate toxicity. Koh, J.Y., Peters, S., Choi, D.W. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
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  14. Expression of human epileptic temporal lobe neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes: An innovative approach to study epilepsy. Palma, E., Esposito, V., Mileo, A.M., Di Gennaro, G., Quarato, P., Giangaspero, F., Scoppetta, C., Onorati, P., Trettel, F., Miledi, R., Eusebi, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Glutamate receptor-mediated toxicity in optic nerve oligodendrocytes. Matute, C., Sánchez-Gómez, M.V., Martínez-Millán, L., Miledi, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Operative GABAergic inhibition in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in experimental epilepsy. Esclapez, M., Hirsch, J.C., Khazipov, R., Ben-Ari, Y., Bernard, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Cloning of a putative high-affinity kainate receptor expressed predominantly in hippocampal CA3 cells. Werner, P., Voigt, M., Keinänen, K., Wisden, W., Seeburg, P.H. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Neuregulin-beta induces expression of an NMDA-receptor subunit. Ozaki, M., Sasner, M., Yano, R., Lu, H.S., Buonanno, A. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Altered synaptic physiology and reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures in GluR6-deficient mice. Mulle, C., Sailer, A., Pérez-Otaño, I., Dickinson-Anson, H., Castillo, P.E., Bureau, I., Maron, C., Gage, F.H., Mann, J.R., Bettler, B., Heinemann, S.F. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning by functional expression of a member of the glutamate receptor family. Hollmann, M., O'Shea-Greenfield, A., Rogers, S.W., Heinemann, S. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of glutamate release by presynaptic kainate receptors in the hippocampus. Chittajallu, R., Vignes, M., Dev, K.K., Barnes, J.M., Collingridge, G.L., Henley, J.M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Numerous candidate plasticity-related genes revealed by differential cDNA cloning. Nedivi, E., Hevroni, D., Naot, D., Israeli, D., Citri, Y. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular structure of the chick cerebellar kainate-binding subunit of a putative glutamate receptor. Gregor, P., Mano, I., Maoz, I., McKeown, M., Teichberg, V.I. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Multiple conductance channels in type-2 cerebellar astrocytes activated by excitatory amino acids. Usowicz, M.M., Gallo, V., Cull-Candy, S.G. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning of a cDNA for a glutamate receptor subunit activated by kainate but not AMPA. Egebjerg, J., Bettler, B., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Heinemann, S. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Multiple-conductance channels activated by excitatory amino acids in cerebellar neurons. Cull-Candy, S.G., Usowicz, M.M. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Bidirectional regulation of kainate receptor surface expression in hippocampal neurons. Martin, S., Bouschet, T., Jenkins, E.L., Nishimune, A., Henley, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  28. Somatostatin and its receptor family. Patel, Y.C. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. A family of glutamate receptor genes: evidence for the formation of heteromultimeric receptors with distinct channel properties. Nakanishi, N., Shneider, N.A., Axel, R. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. SAP90 binds and clusters kainate receptors causing incomplete desensitization. Garcia, E.P., Mehta, S., Blair, L.A., Wells, D.G., Shang, J., Fukushima, T., Fallon, J.R., Garner, C.C., Marshall, J. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Cloning of a putative glutamate receptor: a low affinity kainate-binding subunit. Bettler, B., Egebjerg, J., Sharma, G., Pecht, G., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Moll, C., Stevens, C.F., Heinemann, S. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Rapid and differential regulation of AMPA and kainate receptors at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses by PICK1 and GRIP. Hirbec, H., Francis, J.C., Lauri, S.E., Braithwaite, S.P., Coussen, F., Mulle, C., Dev, K.K., Coutinho, V., Meyer, G., Isaac, J.T., Collingridge, G.L., Henley, J.M., Couthino, V. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Anchoring of protein kinase A is required for modulation of AMPA/kainate receptors on hippocampal neurons. Rosenmund, C., Carr, D.W., Bergeson, S.E., Nilaver, G., Scott, J.D., Westbrook, G.L. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Sequence and expression of a frog brain complementary DNA encoding a kainate-binding protein. Wada, K., Dechesne, C.J., Shimasaki, S., King, R.G., Kusano, K., Buonanno, A., Hampson, D.R., Banner, C., Wenthold, R.J., Nakatani, Y. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. An oral vaccine against NMDAR1 with efficacy in experimental stroke and epilepsy. During, M.J., Symes, C.W., Lawlor, P.A., Lin, J., Dunning, J., Fitzsimons, H.L., Poulsen, D., Leone, P., Xu, R., Dicker, B.L., Lipski, J., Young, D. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. The link between excitotoxic oligodendroglial death and demyelinating diseases. Matute, C., Alberdi, E., Domercq, M., Pérez-Cerdá, F., Pérez-Samartín, A., Sánchez-Gómez, M.V. Trends Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. GluR5 kainate receptor activation in interneurons increases tonic inhibition of pyramidal cells. Cossart, R., Esclapez, M., Hirsch, J.C., Bernard, C., Ben-Ari, Y. Nat. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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