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Gene Review

HPCAL1  -  hippocalcin-like 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BDR1, Calcium-binding protein BDR-1, HLP2, Hippocalcin-like protein 1, VILIP-3, ...
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Disease relevance of HPCAL1

  • The mode of action of HLP 2 against the bacterial membrane was investigated by flow cytometric analysis, using Escherichia coli, NCTC 8007 [1].

High impact information on HPCAL1

  • CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that GREB1 and HPCAL1 are candidate hypertension-susceptibility genes in the Japanese general population and supports previous studies that also identified hypertension-related loci in this narrow region [2].
  • To gain insights into the characteristics of visinin-like protein-3, we have generated specific antibodies against visinin-like protein-3 and determined the developmental and tissue distribution of the protein and its exact cellular and subcellular localization [3].
  • Visinin-like protein-3 is a member of the family of intracellular neuronal calcium sensors belonging to the superfamily of EF-hand proteins [3].
  • The membrane association was strongly reduced for the non-myristoylated mutant of visinin-like protein-3 in transfected cells.These results suggest that visinin-like protein-3, which is mainly expressed in Purkinje cells in vivo, shows a calcium-dependent association with cell membranes which is mediated by a calcium-myristoyl switch [3].
  • Extracellularly, VILIP-1 and VILIP-3 immunoreactive material was detected in close association with typical pathologic hallmarks of AD such as dystrophic nerve cell processes, amorphous and neuritic plaques, and extracellular tangles [4].

Biological context of HPCAL1


Anatomical context of HPCAL1

  • Further, neurons belonging to different nuclei of the brain stem and multiple subcortical nerve cells stained for visinin-like protein 3 [6].
  • No differences between schizophrenics, depressives and controls were found in the number of VILIP-1 immunoreactive dentate nucleus neurons and VILIP-3 immunoreactive vermal and flocculonodular Purkinje cells [7].
  • The cellular distribution of two calcium sensor proteins (VILIP-1 and VILIP-3) and of neuronal NOS immunoreactivity was studied morphometrically in the flocculonodulus, the inferior vermis and the dentate nucleus of 9 schizophrenics, 7 depressive patients and 9 matched controls [7].

Associations of HPCAL1 with chemical compounds


  1. A helical region on human lactoferrin. Its role in antibacterial pathogenesis. Chapple, D.S., Joannou, C.L., Mason, D.J., Shergill, J.K., Odell, E.W., Gant, V., Evans, R.W. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypertension susceptibility genes on chromosome 2p24-p25 in a general Japanese population. Kamide, K., Kokubo, Y., Yang, J., Tanaka, C., Hanada, H., Takiuchi, S., Inamoto, N., Banno, M., Kawano, Y., Okayama, A., Tomoike, H., Miyata, T. J. Hypertens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The neuronal EF-hand calcium-binding protein visinin-like protein-3 is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and shows a calcium-dependent membrane association. Spilker, C., Richter, K., Smalla, K.H., Manahan-Vaughan, D., Gundelfinger, E.D., Braunewell, K.H. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Abnormal localization of two neuronal calcium sensor proteins, visinin-like proteins (vilips)-1 and -3, in neocortical brain areas of Alzheimer disease patients. Braunewell, K., Riederer, P., Spilker, C., Gundelfinger, E.D., Bogerts, B., Bernstein, H.G. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning of a novel calcium-binding protein structurally related to hippocalcin from human brain and chromosomal mapping of its gene. Kobayashi, M., Takamatsu, K., Fujishiro, M., Saitoh, S., Noguchi, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Regional and cellular distribution of neural visinin-like protein immunoreactivities (VILIP-1 and VILIP-3) in human brain. Bernstein, H.G., Baumann, B., Danos, P., Diekmann, S., Bogerts, B., Gundelfinger, E.D., Braunewell, K.H. J. Neurocytol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased number of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive Purkinje cells and dentate nucleus neurons in schizophrenia. Bernstein, H.G., Krell, D., Braunewell, K.H., Baumann, B., Gundelfinger, E.D., Diekmann, S., Danos, P., Bogerts, B. J. Neurocytol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Functional Contribution of Ca(2+) and Mg (2+) to the Intermolecular Interaction of Visinin-like Proteins. Jheng, F.F., Wang, L., Lee, L., Chang, L.S. Protein J. (2006) [Pubmed]
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