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Chemical Compound Review

STRONTIUM ION     strontium(+2) cation

Synonyms: strontium(2+), Sr2+, CHEBI:35104, HMDB03642, AC1L2XIK, ...
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High impact information on STRONTIUM

  • Ca(2+) induces binding of the synaptotagmin C(2) domains to SNARE proteins, whereas Sr(2+) even at high concentrations does not [1].
  • Thus, triggering of the fast component of release by Sr(2+) as a Ca(2+) agonist involves the formation of synaptotagmin/phospholipid complexes, but does not require stimulated SNARE binding [1].
  • This was extended to PC12 cell exocytosis triggered by Sr(2+), which was also selectively affected by high-affinity C2-domains of synaptotagmins [2].
  • We tested how switching divalent charge carriers from Ca(2+) to Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) affected Syn1A and synaptotagmin modulation of Ca(2+)-channel activation [3].
  • Strontium ion formed DNA-phosphate precipitates analogous to those formed by calcium but lacking the lethal and differentiation-inducing effects of calcium on many epithelial cell types in primary culture [4].

Biological context of STRONTIUM

  • However, Sr(2+) cannot substitute for Ca(2+) to support nucleotide hydrolysis, presumably because Sr(2+) cannot substitute for Ca(2+) in its second role as a nucleotide cosubstrate [5].
  • It is not known whether Sr(2+) can replace Ca(2+) in small G protein-mediated sensitization of phosphorylation [6].
  • When Sr(2+) substituted for Ca(2+), nerve-evoked synchronous synaptic transmission was severely depressed and delayed asynchronous release was appreciably increased in control embryos [7].
  • The uptake of Sr(2+) by the whole body, gills and blood increased with temperature and showed saturation kinetics with the increase of Sr(2+) activity [8].
  • The effect of Sr(2+) ions on the formation of quadruplex structures by the human telomere sequence d(TTAGGG)(4) is stronger and different from that of the other ions tested [9].

Anatomical context of STRONTIUM

  • Sr(2+) depolarized mitochondria but failed to induce swelling [10].
  • In the absence of membranes, the degree of apparent positive cooperativity in binding of Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+) decreased with increasing cation size, suggesting that the C2 domain binds two Ca(2+) or Sr(2+) ions, but only one Ba(2+) ion [11].
  • In Jurkat and human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), a membrane-permeant analogue of diacylglycerol, activated the influx of Ca(2+), Ba(2+) and Sr(2+) [12].
  • This problem was overcome when the sperm-injected oocytes were treated with a parthenogenetic agent, Sr(2+) [13].
  • Spermatozoa incubated overnight in the presence of Sr(2+) were unable to undergo the AR when exposed to hFF [14].

Associations of STRONTIUM with other chemical compounds

  • Trp1-expressing cells displayed only modest carbachol-induced Ca(2+) entry and lacked OAG-induced Sr(2+) entry, whereas Trp3-expressing cells responded to both agents with a substantial divalent cation entry [15].
  • The Sr(2+)- and Ca(2+)-containing enzymes were compared using EPR spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and O2 polarography [16].
  • Furthermore, TRPM7 allows other essential metals such as Mn(2+) and Co(2+) to permeate, and permits significant entry of nonphysiologic or toxic metals such as Cd(2+), Ba(2+), and Sr(2+) [17].
  • Large changes in SPR signals were observed for Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+), and Mn(2+) as well as Ca(2+), indicating that upon binding to these ions, recoverin underwent a large conformational change to extrude the myristoyl group, and thereby interacted with lipid membranes [18].
  • Here, crystal structures determined to 1.8 A resolution, both with Mg(2+) as the sole divalent counterion and with Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) (which mimics Pb(2+) with respect to binding but not catalysis), reveal the metal ion interactions with both the ground state and precatalytic conformations of the leadzyme [19].

Gene context of STRONTIUM


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STRONTIUM


  1. Sr2+ binding to the Ca2+ binding site of the synaptotagmin 1 C2B domain triggers fast exocytosis without stimulating SNARE interactions. Shin, O.H., Rhee, J.S., Tang, J., Sugita, S., Rosenmund, C., Südhof, T.C. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Synaptotagmins form a hierarchy of exocytotic Ca(2+) sensors with distinct Ca(2+) affinities. Sugita, S., Shin, O.H., Han, W., Lao, Y., Südhof, T.C. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Ionic dependence of Ca2+ channel modulation by syntaxin 1A. Wiser, O., Cohen, R., Atlas, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Strontium phosphate transfection of human cells in primary culture: stable expression of the simian virus 40 large-T-antigen gene in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Brash, D.E., Reddel, R.R., Quanrud, M., Yang, K., Farrell, M.P., Harris, C.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Site-directed mutagenesis of human soluble calcium-activated nucleotidase 1 (hSCAN-1): identification of residues essential for enzyme activity and the Ca(2+)-induced conformational change. Yang, M., Kirley, T.L. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Sustained norepinephrine contraction in the rat portal vein is lost when Ca(2+) is replaced with Sr(2+). Bonnevier, J., Malmqvist, U., Sonntag, D., Schroeter, M., Nilsson, H., Pfitzer, G., Arner, A. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Nerve-evoked synchronous release and high k+-induced quantal events are regulated separately by synaptotagmin I at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Tamura, T., Hou, J., Reist, N.E., Kidokoro, Y. J. Neurophysiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of temperature on the uptake of waterborne strontium in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.). Chowdhury, M.J., Blust, R. Aquat. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of ions on the polymorphism, effective charge, and stability of human telomeric DNA. Photon correlation spectroscopy and circular dichroism studies. Włodarczyk, A., Grzybowski, P., Patkowski, A., Dobek, A. The journal of physical chemistry. B, Condensed matter, materials, surfaces, interfaces & biophysical. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Calcium-dependent Spontaneously Reversible Remodeling of Brain Mitochondria. Shalbuyeva, N., Brustovetsky, T., Bolshakov, A., Brustovetsky, N. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Cation charge and size selectivity of the C2 domain of cytosolic phospholipase A(2). Nalefski, E.A., Falke, J.J. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Diacylglycerol activates the influx of extracellular cations in T-lymphocytes independently of intracellular calcium-store depletion and possibly involving endogenous TRP6 gene products. Gamberucci, A., Giurisato, E., Pizzo, P., Tassi, M., Giunti, R., McIntosh, D.P., Benedetti, A. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Alkylated imino sugars, reversible male infertility-inducing agents, do not affect the genetic integrity of male mouse germ cells during short-term treatment despite induction of sperm deformities. Suganuma, R., Walden, C.M., Butters, T.D., Platt, F.M., Dwek, R.A., Yanagimachi, R., van der Spoel, A.C. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Strontium supports human sperm capacitation but not follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction. Marín-Briggiler, C.I., Vazquez-Levin, M.H., Gonzalez-Echeverría, F., Blaquier, J.A., Tezón, J.G., Miranda, P.V. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Coassembly of Trp1 and Trp3 proteins generates diacylglycerol- and Ca2+-sensitive cation channels. Lintschinger, B., Balzer-Geldsetzer, M., Baskaran, T., Graier, W.F., Romanin, C., Zhu, M.X., Groschner, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Biosynthetic Ca2+/Sr2+ exchange in the photosystem II oxygen-evolving enzyme of Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Boussac, A., Rappaport, F., Carrier, P., Verbavatz, J.M., Gobin, R., Kirilovsky, D., Rutherford, A.W., Sugiura, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. TRPM7 provides an ion channel mechanism for cellular entry of trace metal ions. Monteilh-Zoller, M.K., Hermosura, M.C., Nadler, M.J., Scharenberg, A.M., Penner, R., Fleig, A. J. Gen. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. How can Ca2+ selectively activate recoverin in the presence of Mg2+? Surface plasmon resonance and FT-IR spectroscopic studies. Ozawa, T., Fukuda, M., Nara, M., Nakamura, A., Komine, Y., Kohama, K., Umezawa, Y. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Crystal structure of the leadzyme at 1.8 A resolution: metal ion binding and the implications for catalytic mechanism and allo site ion regulation. Wedekind, J.E., McKay, D.B. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. The role of endogenous human Trp4 in regulating carbachol-induced calcium oscillations in HEK-293 cells. Wu, X., Babnigg, G., Zagranichnaya, T., Villereal, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of three EGF domains of EMR2, a 7TM immune-system molecule. Abbott, R.J., Knott, V., Roversi, P., Neudeck, S., Lukacik, P., Handford, P.A., Lea, S.M. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Ethanol alters the frequency, amplitude, and decay kinetics of Sr2+-supported, asynchronous NMDAR mEPSCs in rat hippocampal slices. Hendricson, A.W., Sibbald, J.R., Morrisett, R.A. J. Neurophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional Contribution of Ca(2+) and Mg (2+) to the Intermolecular Interaction of Visinin-like Proteins. Jheng, F.F., Wang, L., Lee, L., Chang, L.S. Protein J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Accelerated biodegradation of cement by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as a bioassay for evaluating immobilization of low-level radioactive waste. Aviam, O., Bar-Nes, G., Zeiri, Y., Sivan, A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production. Kishigami, S., Wakayama, S., Nguyen, V.T., Wakayama, T. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Different cytoplasmic calcium contents among three species of Characeae. Tazawa, M., Kikuyama, M., Okazaki, Y. Plant Cell Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. The absence of a Ca(2+) signal during mouse egg activation can affect parthenogenetic preimplantation development, gene expression patterns, and blastocyst quality. Rogers, N.T., Halet, G., Piao, Y., Carroll, J., Ko, M.S., Swann, K. Reproduction (2006) [Pubmed]
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