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Gene Review

VSNL1  -  visinin-like 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HLP3, HPCAL3, HUVISL1, Hippocalcin-like protein 3, VILIP, ...
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Disease relevance of VSNL1


Psychiatry related information on VSNL1


High impact information on VSNL1

  • The neuronal Ca2+ sensor protein visinin-like protein-1 is expressed in pancreatic islets and regulates insulin secretion [4].
  • The calcium sensor protein visinin-like protein-1 modulates the surface expression and agonist sensitivity of the alpha 4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor [5].
  • Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is characterized by a serine-threonine kinase domain, an autoinhibitory domain, a calmodulin-binding domain and a neural visinin-like domain with three EF-hands [6].
  • The involvement of visinin (VSNL1), a promising candidate gene assigned to chromosome 2p by previous studies, has been excluded by the absence of linkage [7].
  • VLP-1 was detected in plasma of patients after stroke and in cerebrospinal fluid of a rat model of stroke [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of VSNL1


Biological context of VSNL1

  • We have mapped the VSNL1 gene to the short arm of chromosome 2 [9].
  • In the course of isolation and sequence analysis of microsatellite repeat containing human cDNAs, we have isolated the human homologue of the rat visinin-like peptide gene [9].
  • Functional analysis of calcium-binding EF-hand motifs of visinin-like protein-1 [10].
  • We studied by immunohistochemical methods the distribution of visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1), which is a calcium sensor protein and at the same time a trkB mRNA binding protein, in hippocampi of nine schizophrenic patients and nine matched control subjects [11].
  • A novel calcium-binding calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) with a catalytic domain, calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like domain was cloned and characterized from plants [Patil et al., (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 4797-4801; Takezawa et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 8126-8132] [12].

Anatomical context of VSNL1


Associations of VSNL1 with chemical compounds

  • Functional Contribution of Ca(2+) and Mg (2+) to the Intermolecular Interaction of Visinin-like Proteins [16].
  • In contrast, the nonmyristoylated mutant of VILIP reduced cellular cAMP levels in C6 cells [1].
  • However, VILIP expression increased the beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in these cells severalfold [1].
  • In some flat-mounted preparations, glucagon- and serotonin-like reactive amacrine cells and visinin-like immunoreactive bipolar cells (distally located) could be observed [17].
  • The NCS family includes NCS-1, visinin-like proteins, recoverins, guanylate cyclase-activating proteins and potassium channel-interacting proteins [18].

Other interactions of VSNL1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VSNL1

  • Cell fractionation revealed cytoplasmic, membrane- and cytoskeleton-associated pools of VILIP [20].
  • Ca2+-dependent mobility shift assays using E. coli-expressed protein from residues 358 520 revealed that Ca2+ binds to the visinin-like domain [21].
  • Tissue specificity was tested by Western blot on a human tissue array, and a sensitive and quantitative sandwich immunoassay was developed for the most abundant gene product observed in our search, VLP-1 [8].


  1. The neuronal calcium-sensor protein VILIP modulates cyclic AMP accumulation in stably transfected C6 glioma cells: amino-terminal myristoylation determines functional activity. Braunewell, K.H., Spilker, C., Behnisch, T., Gundelfinger, E.D. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Correlation of visinin-like-protein-1 expression with clinicopathological features in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Wickborn, C., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Schlag, P.M., Braunewell, K.H. Mol. Carcinog. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Abnormal localization of two neuronal calcium sensor proteins, visinin-like proteins (vilips)-1 and -3, in neocortical brain areas of Alzheimer disease patients. Braunewell, K., Riederer, P., Spilker, C., Gundelfinger, E.D., Bogerts, B., Bernstein, H.G. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The neuronal Ca2+ sensor protein visinin-like protein-1 is expressed in pancreatic islets and regulates insulin secretion. Dai, F.F., Zhang, Y., Kang, Y., Wang, Q., Gaisano, H.Y., Braunewell, K.H., Chan, C.B., Wheeler, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The calcium sensor protein visinin-like protein-1 modulates the surface expression and agonist sensitivity of the alpha 4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Lin, L., Jeanclos, E.M., Treuil, M., Braunewell, K.H., Gundelfinger, E.D., Anand, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Plant chimeric Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Role of the neural visinin-like domain in regulating autophosphorylation and calmodulin affinity. Sathyanarayanan, P.V., Cremo, C.R., Poovaiah, B.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa locus RP28 maps between D2S1337 and D2S286 on chromosome 2p11-p15 in an Indian family. Gu, S., Kumaramanickavel, G., Srikumari, C.R., Denton, M.J., Gal, A. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of novel brain biomarkers. Laterza, O.F., Modur, V.R., Crimmins, D.L., Olander, J.V., Landt, Y., Lee, J.M., Ladenson, J.H. Clin. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Sequence characterization and genetic mapping of the human VSNL1 gene, a homologue of the rat visinin-like peptide RNVP1. Polymeropoulos, M.H., Ide, S., Soares, M.B., Lennon, G.G. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional analysis of calcium-binding EF-hand motifs of visinin-like protein-1. Lin, L., Braunewell, K.H., Gundelfinger, E.D., Anand, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Hippocampal expression of the calcium sensor protein visinin-like protein-1 in schizophrenia. Bernstein, H.G., Braunewell, K.H., Spilker, C., Danos, P., Baumann, B., Funke, S., Diekmann, S., Gundelfinger, E.D., Bogerts, B. Neuroreport (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional domains of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase: regulation by autoinhibitory and visinin-like domains. Ramachandiran, S., Takezawa, D., Wang, W., Poovaiah, B.W. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Regional and cellular distribution of neural visinin-like protein immunoreactivities (VILIP-1 and VILIP-3) in human brain. Bernstein, H.G., Baumann, B., Danos, P., Diekmann, S., Bogerts, B., Gundelfinger, E.D., Braunewell, K.H. J. Neurocytol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation of two human cDNAs, HLP3 and HLP4, homologous to the neuron-specific calcium-binding protein genes. Kobayashi, M., Sakai, E., Furuta, Y., Takamatsu, K. DNA Seq. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Intracellular neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein VILIP-1 modulates cGMP signalling pathways in transfected neural cells and cerebellar granule neurones. Braunewell, K.H., Brackmann, M., Schaupp, M., Spilker, C., Anand, R., Gundelfinger, E.D. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Functional Contribution of Ca(2+) and Mg (2+) to the Intermolecular Interaction of Visinin-like Proteins. Jheng, F.F., Wang, L., Lee, L., Chang, L.S. Protein J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. An immunohistochemical study on the river lamprey retina. Negishi, K., Kiyama, H., Kato, S., Teranishi, T., Hatakenaka, S., Katayama, Y., Miki, N., Tohyama, M. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Neuronal calcium sensor-1: a multifunctional regulator of secretion. Hilfiker, S. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Hippocalcin: a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand superfamily dominantly expressed in the hippocampus. Takamatsu, K., Noguchi, T. Neurosci. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. The neuronal EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein VILIP: interaction with cell membrane and actin-based cytoskeleton. Lenz, S.E., Braunewell, K.H., Weise, C., Nedlina-Chittka, A., Gundelfinger, E.D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Dual regulation of a chimeric plant serine/threonine kinase by calcium and calcium/calmodulin. Takezawa, D., Ramachandiran, S., Paranjape, V., Poovaiah, B.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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