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Gene Review

par-6  -  CG5884 gene product from transcript CG5884-RA

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG5884, DPar-6, DPar6, Dm-Par-6, Dm-Par6, ...
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High impact information on par-6


Biological context of par-6


Anatomical context of par-6


Associations of par-6 with chemical compounds

  • Computer modelling in combination with in vitro studies reveals similar binding affinities of Drosophila Crumbs for the PDZ domains of Stardust and DmPar-6 [7].
  • AJ assembly is closely coupled to Baz positioning, whereas aPKC and PAR-6 are positioned separately [9].

Physical interactions of par-6

  • Here we show by in vitro analysis that, similar as in vertebrates, the single PDZ domain of Drosophila DmPar-6 can bind to the four C-terminal amino acids (ERLI) of the transmembrane protein Crumbs [7].
  • We further demonstrate that Dlt directly binds to Par-6, providing a molecular basis for the mutual dependence of the two complexes [5].
  • PAR-6 is a direct effector of Rho family GTPases and binds to and regulates aPKC [10].

Co-localisations of par-6


Regulatory relationships of par-6

  • In addition, we show that Baz and Par-6 are also expressed at synapses and that their synaptic localization depends on aPKC activity [11].
  • Apical localization of Par-6 requires its interaction with activated Cdc42 and dominant-active or dominant-negative Cdc42 disrupt epithelial polarity, suggesting that activation of this GTPase is crucial for the establishment of epithelial polarity [12].

Other interactions of par-6

  • We have also characterized, in more detail, the amino terminus of Drosophila Stardust and demonstrate that the interaction mechanism between Stardust and Drosophila Par6 is evolutionarily conserved [13].
  • We show here that polarity is established shortly after cellularization when Par-6 and the atypical protein kinase C concentrate on the apical side of the newly formed cells [12].
  • Cdc42 binds to a CRIB domain adjacent to the PDZ domain, increasing the affinity of the Par-6 PDZ for its carboxy-terminal ligand by approximately 13-fold [1].
  • Bazooka and PAR-6 are required with PAR-1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of par-6


  1. Cdc42 regulates the Par-6 PDZ domain through an allosteric CRIB-PDZ transition. Peterson, F.C., Penkert, R.R., Volkman, B.F., Prehoda, K.E. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Baz, Par-6 and aPKC are not required for axon or dendrite specification in Drosophila. Rolls, M.M., Doe, C.Q. Nat. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts in Drosophila. Petronczki, M., Knoblich, J.A. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Requirement for Par-6 and Bazooka in Drosophila border cell migration. Pinheiro, E.M., Montell, D.J. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction of Par-6 and Crumbs complexes is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis in Drosophila. Nam, S.C., Choi, K.W. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Internal recognition through PDZ domain plasticity in the Par-6-Pals1 complex. Penkert, R.R., DiVittorio, H.M., Prehoda, K.E. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Computer modelling in combination with in vitro studies reveals similar binding affinities of Drosophila Crumbs for the PDZ domains of Stardust and DmPar-6. Kempkens, O., Médina, E., Fernandez-Ballester, G., Ozüyaman, S., Le Bivic, A., Serrano, L., Knust, E. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Bazooka and PAR-6 are required with PAR-1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila. Huynh, J.R., Petronczki, M., Knoblich, J.A., St Johnston, D. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. Harris, T.J., Peifer, M. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. A conserved oligomerization domain in drosophila Bazooka/PAR-3 is important for apical localization and epithelial polarity. Benton, R., St Johnston, D. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. New synaptic bouton formation is disrupted by misregulation of microtubule stability in aPKC mutants. Ruiz-Canada, C., Ashley, J., Moeckel-Cole, S., Drier, E., Yin, J., Budnik, V. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequential roles of Cdc42, Par-6, aPKC, and Lgl in the establishment of epithelial polarity during Drosophila embryogenesis. Hutterer, A., Betschinger, J., Petronczki, M., Knoblich, J.A. Dev. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Tight junction protein Par6 interacts with an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1/stardust. Wang, Q., Hurd, T.W., Margolis, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. PAR-6 is a conserved PDZ domain-containing protein that colocalizes with PAR-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Hung, T.J., Kemphues, K.J. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
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