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Gene Review

par-1  -  CG8201 gene product from transcript CG8201-RV

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 27C1, BcDNA:RH48823, CG11960, CG16701, CG30131, ...
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Disease relevance of par-1


High impact information on par-1


Biological context of par-1

  • CONCLUSIONS: The Drosophila par-1 gene plays at least two essential roles during oogenesis; it is required early in the germline for organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent oocyte determination, and it has a second, previously described role late in oogenesis in axis formation [4].
  • We depleted maternal and zygotic par-1 by RNAi and revealed a requirement for Par-1 in establishing cell polarity [5].
  • Here we present an overview of known roles of KIN1/PAR-1/MARK kinases including pEg3 a newly identified member which is regulated during the cell cycle and is a potential regulator of the cell cycle progression [6].
  • PAR-1 kinases phosphorylate proteins to generate 14-3-3 binding sites and may therefore directly deliver 14-3-3 to these targets [7].
  • Loss of PAR-1 function leads to increased synapse formation and synaptic transmission, whereas overexpression of PAR-1 has the opposite effects [8].

Anatomical context of par-1

  • RESULTS: In addition to its previously described late oogenic role in the establishment of anterior-posterior polarity and subsequent embryonic axis formation, the Drosophila par-1 gene is required very early in the germline for establishing cyst polarity and for oocyte specification [4].
  • Similarly, somatic clonal analyses indicate that par-1 is required for microtubule stabilization in follicle cells [4].
  • In C. elegans, the PAR-1 kinase is localized to the posterior of the zygote and is required for anterior-posterior axis formation [3].
  • However, in contrast to their regulatory relationship in the Drosophila and C. elegans embryos, these proteins are not mutually dependent for their germ-line localization, nor is either protein specifically required for PAR-1 localization to the fusome [9].
  • We have investigated the role of PAR-1 in epithelial polarity by generating null mutant clones in the Drosophila follicular epithelium [10].

Associations of par-1 with chemical compounds

  • PAR-1 also excludes Bazooka from the posterior of the oocyte, and disruption of this regulation causes anterior-posterior polarity defects [2].

Other interactions of par-1

  • Therefore, whereas BAZ, DaPKC, and PAR-1 are functionally conserved in establishing oocyte polarity, the regulatory relationships among these genes are not well conserved, indicating these molecules function differently in different cellular contexts [9].
  • Bazooka and PAR-6 are required with PAR-1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila [11].
  • Par-1 kinase establishes cell polarity and functions in Notch signaling in the Drosophila embryo [5].


  1. PAR-1 kinase plays an initiator role in a temporally ordered phosphorylation process that confers tau toxicity in Drosophila. Nishimura, I., Yang, Y., Lu, B. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Benton, R., St Johnston, D. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The Drosophila homolog of C. elegans PAR-1 organizes the oocyte cytoskeleton and directs oskar mRNA localization to the posterior pole. Shulman, J.M., Benton, R., St Johnston, D. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Drosophila par-1 is required for oocyte differentiation and microtubule organization. Cox, D.N., Lu, B., Sun, T.Q., Williams, L.T., Jan, Y.N. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Par-1 kinase establishes cell polarity and functions in Notch signaling in the Drosophila embryo. Bayraktar, J., Zygmunt, D., Carthew, R.W. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. An overview of the KIN1/PAR-1/MARK kinase family. Tassan, J.P., Le Goff, X. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Benton, R., Palacios, I.M., St Johnston, D. Dev. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. PAR-1 kinase phosphorylates Dlg and regulates its postsynaptic targeting at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Zhang, Y., Guo, H., Kwan, H., Wang, J.W., Kosek, J., Lu, B. Neuron (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Bazooka and atypical protein kinase C are required to regulate oocyte differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Cox, D.N., Seyfried, S.A., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of PAR-1 in regulating the polarised microtubule cytoskeleton in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Doerflinger, H., Benton, R., Shulman, J.M., St Johnston, D. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Bazooka and PAR-6 are required with PAR-1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila. Huynh, J.R., Petronczki, M., Knoblich, J.A., St Johnston, D. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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