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Gene Review

exsF  -  exosporium protein

Bacillus cereus E33L

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Disease relevance of exsF


High impact information on exsF

  • In this study, we demonstrated that two O-linked oligosaccharides, a 715-Da tetrasaccharide and a 324-Da disaccharide, are released from spore- and exosporium-associated BclA by hydrazinolysis [1].
  • We found that these spores survive and escape from macrophages, and that the bacterial metalloprotease InhA1, the major component of the exosporium, is essential for efficient spore release from macrophages [4].
  • To date, the structural contribution of only one exosporium component, the collagen-like glycoprotein BclA, has been described [5].
  • Although most of the exosporium genes are scattered on the genome, bclA and exsF are clustered in a region flanking the rhamnose biosynthesis operon; rhamnose is part of the sugar moiety of spore glycoproteins [6].
  • In addition, transfer of the 98-MDa plasmid to Bacillus cereus resulted in transcipients that produced small inclusions enclosed within the exosporium, and the protein extracted from these inclusions reacted with antibody specific for enclosed inclusion protein of B. thuringiensis subsp. finitimus [7].

Anatomical context of exsF


Associations of exsF with chemical compounds

  • Seven proteins were identified in washed exosporium: alanine racemase, inosine hydrolase, ExsF, CotY, ExsY, CotB and a novel protein, named ExsK [9].
  • When the spores were treated with 10% 2-mercaptoethanol, there was partial destruction of the exosporium as well as detachment of the filamentous appendages [10].
  • The main components of both filamentous appendages and the exosporium were protein and their amino acid compositions were similar in point of a high content of glycine, alanine, threonine, valine, and acidic amino acids and a low content of basic and sulphur-containing amino acids [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of exsF

  • Electron microscopy revealed that the exsF mutant spores have defective exosporia [5].
  • Here, using in vitro atomic force microscopy, we have directly visualized high-resolution native structures of bacterial endospores, including the exosporium and spore coats of four Bacillus species in air and water environments [11].
  • Antibody D89 reacted with the exosporium and outer cortex of C. sporogenes spores in immunocytochemical localization studies but did not react with extracts of C. sporogenes or B. cereus spores in Western blotting [12].
  • Analysis of the isolated exosporium by negative staining and digital image processing revealed a lattice structure belonging to the p 6 hexagonal space group with a repeat of 8.0 nm [13].


  1. Novel oligosaccharide side chains of the collagen-like region of BclA, the major glycoprotein of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium. Daubenspeck, J.M., Zeng, H., Chen, P., Dong, S., Steichen, C.T., Krishna, N.R., Pritchard, D.G., Turnbough, C.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The ExsA protein of Bacillus cereus is required for assembly of coat and exosporium onto the spore surface. Bailey-Smith, K., Todd, S.J., Southworth, T.W., Proctor, J., Moir, A. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Morphogenesis of bacillus spore surfaces. Chada, V.G., Sanstad, E.A., Wang, R., Driks, A. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The InhA1 metalloprotease allows spores of the B. cereus group to escape macrophages. Ramarao, N., Lereclus, D. Cell. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Contribution of ExsFA and ExsFB proteins to the localization of BclA on the spore surface and to the stability of the bacillus anthracis exosporium. Sylvestre, P., Couture-Tosi, E., Mock, M. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis encoding proteins of the exosporium. Todd, S.J., Moir, A.J., Johnson, M.J., Moir, A. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Two different parasporal inclusions are produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. finitimus. Debro, L., Fitz-James, P.C., Aronson, A. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Osmotically induced increase in thermal resistance of heat-sensitive, dipicolinic acid-less spores of Bacillus cereus Ht-8. Bhothipaksa, K., Busta, F.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of proteins in the exosporium of Bacillus anthracis. Redmond, C., Baillie, L.W., Hibbs, S., Moir, A.J., Moir, A. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Properties and origin of filamentous appendages on spores of Bacillus cereus. Kozuka, S., Tochikubo, K. Microbiol. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. The high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of Bacillus spores. Plomp, M., Leighton, T.J., Wheeler, K.E., Malkin, A.J. Biophys. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Monoclonal antibodies for use in detection of Bacillus and Clostridium spores. Quinlan, J.J., Foegeding, P.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The crystalline layers in spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis studied by freeze-etching and high resolution electron microscopy. Wehrli, E., Scherrer, P., Kübler, O. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
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