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Chemical Compound Review

maltose     (2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2- (hydroxymethyl)-6-[(2R...

Synonyms: Amylodextrin, alpha-Maltose, D-(+)-Maltose, SureCN346806, Solani amylum, ...
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Disease relevance of maltose

  • LPS is a major constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and its terminal disaccharide phospholipid (lipid A) portion contains the key structural features responsible for toxic activity [1].
  • Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide that lowers elevated blood ammonia levels and improves symptoms in patients with portosystemic encephalopathy [2].
  • The Gal alpha 1----4Gal disaccharide of the glycolipid toxin receptor is also recognized by the Gal-Gal pilus of uropathogenic E. coli [3].
  • We conclude that the structural requirements for TCT toxicity differ considerably from those for most other muramyl peptide activities, in that the disaccharide moiety is irrelevant for toxicity and both the free amino and carboxyl groups of the A2pm side chain are required for activity [4].
  • We now report that among the breakdown products of the ECM generated by heparanase is a trisulfated disaccharide that can inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice [5].

Psychiatry related information on maltose

  • Individual differences were related to the engagement of other portions of the disaccharide ligands [6].
  • Four synthetic disaccharide analogs of lipid A (LA-15-PP, LA-15-PH, LA-16-PH, and LA-18-PP) and a biosynthetic monosaccharide analog of lipid A (lipid X) were tested in rabbits for their effects on slow-wave sleep, rapid-eye-movement sleep, electroencephalographic slow-wave (0.5- to 4.0-Hz) amplitudes, and brain-colonic temperatures [7].
  • The rates of dissociation of the 1:1 complexes containing a mono- or disaccharide decrease with reaction time, suggesting the presence of two or more kinetically distinct structures produced during nanoES or by gas-phase processes [8].
  • When 1 g of leucrose was given intravenously to adult rats, 70% of this disaccharide was excreted in the urine within 24 h, and feeding and drinking behavior of the rats was not altered [9].
  • Maltose, a disaccharide, can be the agent responsible for the primary signals to induce the sensations of hunger and satiation in human beings [10].

High impact information on maltose

  • Although some disaccharide GSL antigens can be recognized without processing, the responses to three other antigens, including the disaccharide GSL Gal(alpha1-->2)GalCer (Gal, galactose; GalCer, galactosylceramide), required removal of the terminal sugars to permit interaction with the T cell receptor [11].
  • Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids [12].
  • To confirm that this disaccharide was in fact immunosuppressive, an identical disaccharide was prepared by sequential digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharide [13].
  • When tested on peanut lectin, which shows specificity for the disaccharide Gal beta 1-3GalNAc, gpL115 is nonadherent and sialidase-treated gpL115 is adherent, indicating the presence of the sequence sialic acid-Gal beta 1-3GalNAc, which is characteristic for O-linked (mucin-type, acidic-type) carbohydrates [14].
  • Identification of an active disaccharide unit of a glycoconjugate receptor for pneumococci attaching to human pharyngeal epithelial cells [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of maltose


Biological context of maltose

  • The finding that little or no activity was demonstrated by the disaccharide, the reduced disaccharide, or other glycoproteins containing the same disaccharide chain suggested that the antigenic determinant probably involved the disaccharide and a unique amino acid sequence at the site of its attachment [21].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: alpha-D-Glucosidase inhibitors act primarily by decreasing disaccharide hydrolysis and thus reduce the amount of free monosaccharides available for absorption [22].
  • The binding of pyelonephritogenic E. coli to urinary epithelial cells of P1 phenotypes was blocked by the synthetic disaccharide alpha-D-Galp-(1 leads to 4)-beta-D-Galp whose structures is related to that of the P blood group antigens [23].
  • LPG contains a polymer of the disaccharide-phosphate repeat unit Galbeta1,4Manalpha1-PO4, shared by other developmentally regulated molecules implicated in parasite virulence [24].
  • A global search method, involving the use of a disaccharide fragment molecule, was used initially to determine all favorable binding regions at the active site [25].

Anatomical context of maltose


Associations of maltose with other chemical compounds

  • Glycoconjugates containing the disaccharide unit GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 3Gal beta were suggested as receptors for pneumococci adhering to human pharyngeal epithelial cells [15].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high antitumor activity of MEN 10755 in human tumor xenografts, including doxorubicin-resistant xenografts, and its unique pharmacologic and biologic properties make this disaccharide analogue a promising candidate for clinical evaluation [31].
  • A monoclonal antibody-derived, dry blood grouping plate, based upon the simple disaccharide, trehalose, is described that is indefinitely stable at room temperature and was found to have a 99.8% accuracy when tested against a standard semiautomated assay [32].
  • Lactose is not digested completely when intestinal lactase activity is low and the disaccharide is malabsorbed [33].
  • Intestinal permeability to a monosaccharide and a disaccharide was compared by simultaneous measurement of the urinary excretion of L-rhamnose and lactulose after oral ingestion of an hypertonic solution containing both sugars [34].

Gene context of maltose


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of maltose

  • The inhibitory disaccharide was purified to homogeneity by sequential steps including affinity chromatography on immobilized concanavalin A and molecular sizing on Sephadex G-75 and then Fractogel 40S columns, with final purification on high-performance thin-layer chromatography [13].
  • The level of Hunter corrective factor excreted by all three patients increased after transplantation, as did the activity of alpha-L-idurono-2-sulfate sulfatase in serum, when measured directly with a radioactive disulfated disaccharide substrate [40].
  • The disaccharide patterns obtained showed that accumulations of chondroitin-4- and chondroitin-6-sulfates were stimulated proportionately to that of hyaluronate in these cocultures [41].
  • Peptide-HA disaccharide-containing fractions (the SHAP.HA binding regions) were further purified by reverse phase HPLC [42].
  • The products were analyzed by fluorescence-based anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography to separate and quantitate nonreducing terminal structures, in addition to internal unsaturated disaccharide products [43].


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  11. Glycolipid antigen processing for presentation by CD1d molecules. Prigozy, T.I., Naidenko, O., Qasba, P., Elewaut, D., Brossay, L., Khurana, A., Natori, T., Koezuka, Y., Kulkarni, A., Kronenberg, M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
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  14. Characterization of a human lymphocyte surface sialoglycoprotein that is defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Remold-O'Donnell, E., Kenney, D.M., Parkman, R., Cairns, L., Savage, B., Rosen, F.S. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of an active disaccharide unit of a glycoconjugate receptor for pneumococci attaching to human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Andersson, B., Dahmén, J., Frejd, T., Leffler, H., Magnusson, G., Noori, G., Edén, C.S. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Wild-type Escherichia coli grows on the chitin disaccharide, N,N'-diacetylchitobiose, by expressing the cel operon. Keyhani, N.O., Roseman, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Trehalase of Escherichia coli. Mapping and cloning of its structural gene and identification of the enzyme as a periplasmic protein induced under high osmolarity growth conditions. Boos, W., Ehmann, U., Bremer, E., Middendorf, A., Postma, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. The keratan sulfate disaccharide Gal(6S03) beta1,4-GlcNAc(6S03) modulates interleukin 12 production by macrophages in murine Thy-1 type autoimmune disease. Xu, H., Kurihara, H., Ito, T., Kikuchi, H., Yoshida, K., Yamanokuchi, H., Asari, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  20. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and structures of six lipid A species from Rhizobium etli CE3. Detection of an acyloxyacyl residue in each component and origin of the aminogluconate moiety. Que, N.L., Ribeiro, A.A., Raetz, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Antibody to epiglycanin and radioimmunoassay to detect epiglycanin-related glycoproteins in body fluids of cancer patients. Codington, J.F., Bhavanandan, V.P., Bloch, K.J., Nikrui, N., Ellard, J.V., Wang, P.S., Jeanloz, R.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
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  23. Structure of carbohydrate part of receptor on human uroepithelial cells for pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli. Källenius, G., Svenson, S., Möllby, R., Cedergren, B., Hultberg, H., Winberg, J. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Leishmania LPG3 encodes a GRP94 homolog required for phosphoglycan synthesis implicated in parasite virulence but not viability. Descoteaux, A., Avila, H.A., Zhang, K., Turco, S.J., Beverley, S.M. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Prediction of three-dimensional structures of enzyme-substrate and enzyme-inhibitor complexes of lysozyme. Pincus, M.R., Zimmerman, S.S., Scheraga, H.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
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