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Gene Review

dac  -  dachshund

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: BG:DS02780.3, CG4952, DAC, Dac, Dac2-3, ...
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High impact information on dac

  • The eyeless, dachshund, and eyes absent genes encode conserved, nuclear proteins that are essential for eye development in Drosophila [1].
  • We show that the transcriptional regulator Dachshund acts downstream of gcm genes and is required to make lamina precursor cells and lamina neurons competent for neuronal differentiation through regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels [2].
  • Mutations of ey completely disrupted the MB neuropils, and a null mutation of dac resulted in marked disruption and aberrant axonal projections [3].
  • Drosophila sine oculis, eyes absent, and dachshund are essential for compound eye formation and form a gene network with direct protein interaction and genetic regulation [4].
  • Our results suggest that the two eye enhancers act redundantly and in concert with each other to integrate distinct upstream inputs and direct the eye-specific expression of dac [5].

Biological context of dac


Anatomical context of dac


Regulatory relationships of dac

  • We show that restoring expression of eya in loss-of-function dpp mutant backgrounds is sufficient to induce so and dac expression and to rescue eye development [14].
  • In addition, we show that dac negatively regulates Dll [15].
  • We find that the sex determination pathway acts cell-autonomously to determine whether dac is activated by wg signaling, as in females, or by dpp signaling, as in males [10].

Other interactions of dac

  • The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy modulates wingless and decapentaplegic signaling to deploy dachshund sex-specifically in the genital imaginal disc [10].
  • Ectopic expression of ey can induce the expression of several eye-specification genes (eya, so, and dac) and induce eye formation in multiple locations on the body [16].
  • Different expression dynamics of dachshund and Distal-less point to modifications in the regulation of the leg gap gene system [17].
  • These targets, which share homology with the fly genes sine oculis, eyes absent and dachshund, exist in mice and humans as the Six, Eya and Dach gene families [18].
  • We find that dachshund and spalt/spalt-related are essential for proper joint formation between particular antennal segments [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dac


  1. Dachshund and eyes absent proteins form a complex and function synergistically to induce ectopic eye development in Drosophila. Chen, R., Amoui, M., Zhang, Z., Mardon, G. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. glial cells missing and gcm2 cell autonomously regulate both glial and neuronal development in the visual system of Drosophila. Chotard, C., Leung, W., Salecker, I. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic control of development of the mushroom bodies, the associative learning centers in the Drosophila brain, by the eyeless, twin of eyeless, and Dachshund genes. Kurusu, M., Nagao, T., Walldorf, U., Flister, S., Gehring, W.J., Furukubo-Tokunaga, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular interaction and synergistic activation of a promoter by Six, Eya, and Dach proteins mediated through CREB binding protein. Ikeda, K., Watanabe, Y., Ohto, H., Kawakami, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Dual regulation and redundant function of two eye-specific enhancers of the Drosophila retinal determination gene dachshund. Pappu, K.S., Ostrin, E.J., Middlebrooks, B.W., Sili, B.T., Chen, R., Atkins, M.R., Gibbs, R., Mardon, G. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Early development of the Drosophila mushroom body: the roles of eyeless and dachshund. Noveen, A., Daniel, A., Hartenstein, V. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Proximal to distal cell communication in the Drosophila leg provides a basis for an intercalary mechanism of limb patterning. Goto, S., Hayashi, S. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Duplicated Pax6 genes in Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda), an arthropod with simple lateral eyes. Prpic, N.M. Zoology (Jena) (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Targeted expression of teashirt induces ectopic eyes in Drosophila. Pan, D., Rubin, G.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy modulates wingless and decapentaplegic signaling to deploy dachshund sex-specifically in the genital imaginal disc. Keisman, E.L., Baker, B.S. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Sex determination genes control the development of the Drosophila genital disc, modulating the response to Hedgehog, Wingless and Decapentaplegic signals. Sánchez, L., Gorfinkiel, N., Guerrero, I. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation of three zebrafish dachshund homologues and their expression in sensory organs, the central nervous system and pectoral fin buds. Hammond, K.L., Hill, R.E., Whitfield, T.T., Currie, P.D. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Ectopic eye development in Drosophila induced by directed dachshund expression. Shen, W., Mardon, G. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Morphogenetic furrow initiation and progression during eye development in Drosophila: the roles of decapentaplegic, hedgehog and eyes absent. Curtiss, J., Mlodzik, M. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Generation of multiple antagonistic domains along the proximodistal axis during Drosophila leg development. Abu-Shaar, M., Mann, R.S. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Eyeless collaborates with Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic signaling in Drosophila eye induction. Kango-Singh, M., Singh, A., Henry Sun, Y. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Gene expression in spider appendages reveals reversal of exd/hth spatial specificity, altered leg gap gene dynamics, and suggests divergent distal morphogen signaling. Prpic, N.M., Janssen, R., Wigand, B., Klingler, M., Damen, W.G. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Vertebrate eye development as modeled in Drosophila. Wawersik, S., Maas, R.L. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Distal-less and homothorax regulate multiple targets to pattern the Drosophila antenna. Dong, P.D., Dicks, J.S., Panganiban, G. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular cloning and expression of the human and mouse homologues of the Drosophila dachshund gene. Kozmik, Z., Pfeffer, P., Kralova, J., Paces, J., Paces, V., Kalousova, A., Cvekl, A. Dev. Genes Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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