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Gene Review

Reut_A1353  -  beta-ketothiolase

Ralstonia eutropha JMP134

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Disease relevance of Reut_A1353

  • A synthetic operon for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis designed to yield high levels of PHA synthase activity in vivo was constructed by positioning a genetic fragment encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase behind a modified synthase gene containing an Escherichia coli promoter and ribosome binding site [1].
  • Alcaligenes eutrophus genes encoding the enzymes, beta-ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB), and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) catalyze the production of aliphatic polyester poly-d-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from acetyl-CoA [2].
  • 1. Beta-Ketothiolase of Clostridium pasteurianum was purified 130-fold by ammonium sulphate fractionation and by column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and hydroxylapatite [3].
  • The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins deduced from these genes indicate that they encode a beta-ketothiolase [phbATv, relative molecular mass (M(r)) 40850], which exhibited 87.3% amino acid identity with the beta-ketothiolase from Chromatium vinosum [4].
  • To regulate the unit fraction in PHBHHx, phbA and phbB genes encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase in Ralstonia eutropha, were introduced into A. hydrophila 4AK4 [5].

High impact information on Reut_A1353

  • Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Characterization of the genes encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase [6].
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pAeT10 insert identified two open reading frames which encode polypeptides of Mr = 40,500 and Mr = 26,300 corresponding to the structural genes for beta-ketothiolase (phbA) and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phbB), respectively [6].
  • Biochemical analysis of lysates of E. coli cells containing each plasmid identified significant levels of beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase enzyme activities in lysates of E. coli cells containing plasmids pAeT10 or pAeT29 [6].
  • The Alcaligenes eutrophus genes for beta-ketothiolase, NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase and poly(beta-hydroxybutyric acid) synthase (PHB synthase) which comprise the three-step PHB-biosynthetic pathway, were cloned [7].
  • The three PHA biosynthesis genes formed an operon with the order PHA synthase, beta-ketothiolase, and reductase genes and were constitutively expressed from the natural promoter in E. coli [8].

Biological context of Reut_A1353

  • Initially, an A. eutrophus H16 genomic library was constructed by using cosmid pVK102, and cosmid clones that encoded the PHB biosynthetic pathway were sought by assaying for the first enzyme of the pathway, beta-ketothiolase [9].
  • Escherichia coli carrying the fusion gene between lacZ and the ORF accumulated a level of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) that was as much as 20 wt% of the cell dry weight in the presence of beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetylcoenzyme A reductase genes of A. eutrophus [10].
  • The amino acid sequences of beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase deduced from phbACv and phbBCv, exhibited a similarity of 68.2% and 56.4% identical amino acids, respectively, to the corresponding enzymes of A. eutrophus [11].
  • Kinetics and properties of beta-ketothiolase from Clostridium pasteurianum [3].
  • The nucleotide sequences of the PHA-synthesis genes phaA (beta-ketothiolase), phaB (acetoacetyl-CoA reductase), and phaC (PHA synthase) in pEH74 were determined [12].

Associations of Reut_A1353 with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Reut_A1353


  1. PHA synthase activity controls the molecular weight and polydispersity of polyhydroxybutyrate in vivo. Sim, S.J., Snell, K.D., Hogan, S.A., Stubbe, J., Rha, C., Sinskey, A.J. Nat. Biotechnol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Metabolic pathway engineering in cotton: Biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate in fiber cells. John, M.E., Keller, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Kinetics and properties of beta-ketothiolase from Clostridium pasteurianum. Berndt, H., Schlegel, H.G. Arch. Microbiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and molecular analysis of the poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) biosynthetic genes of Thiocystis violacea. Liebergesell, M., Steinbüchel, A. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolic engineering for the production of copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate by Aeromonas hydrophila. Qiu, Y.Z., Ouyang, S.P., Shen, Z., Wu, Q., Chen, G.Q. Macromolecular bioscience. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Characterization of the genes encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. Peoples, O.P., Sinskey, A.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Physiology and molecular genetics of poly(beta-hydroxy-alkanoic acid) synthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus. Steinbüchel, A., Schlegel, H.G. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning of the Alcaligenes latus polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes and use of these genes for enhanced production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Escherichia coli. Choi, J.I., Lee, S.Y., Han, K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway. Slater, S.C., Voige, W.H., Dennis, D.E. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular analysis of the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) synthase gene from a methylotrophic bacterium, Paracoccus denitrificans. Ueda, S., Yabutani, T., Maehara, A., Yamane, T. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning and nucleotide sequences of genes relevant for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) in Chromatium vinosum strain D. Liebergesell, M., Steinbüchel, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of the poly (3-hydroxyalkanoic acid)-synthesis genes of Pseudomonas acidophila. Umeda, F., Kitano, Y., Murakami, Y., Yagi, K., Miura, Y., Mizoguchi, T. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning and molecular analysis of the Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyalkanoate) biosynthesis genes in Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3. Matsusaki, H., Manji, S., Taguchi, K., Kato, M., Fukui, T., Doi, Y. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Biochemical and enzymological properties of the polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from the extremely halophilic archaeon strain 56. Hezayen, F.F., Steinbüchel, A., Rehm, B.H. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Engineering of Ralstonia eutropha for production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) from fructose and solid-state properties of the copolymer. Fukui, T., Abe, H., Doi, Y. Biomacromolecules (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of expressing polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis genes (phbCAB) in Streptococcus zooepidemicus on production of lactic acid and hyaluronic acid. Zhang, J., Hao, N., Chen, G.Q. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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