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Gene Review

insc  -  inscuteable

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 25/17, CG11312, Dmel\CG11312, INSC, Ins, ...
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Disease relevance of insc


High impact information on insc


Biological context of insc

  • We conclude that localization of insc mRNA transcripts in neuroblasts confers maximal levels of apical Insc activity, which is required for accurate control of metaphase spindle length, division orientation, and asymmetric cell division [6].
  • Our results demonstrate a novel role for Abs in the posttranscriptional regulation of insc expression, which is essential for proper cell polarity, spindle orientation, and the establishment of distinct sibling cell fates within embryonic neural and muscle progenitors [7].
  • In neuroblasts we observe loss of apical Insc crescents, failure in basal protein targeting, and defects in spindle orientation [7].
  • The Mira/Pros telophase rescue seen in inscuteable mutant NBs requires DTRAF1 [8].
  • Although localisation of Inscuteable in pins mutants was initiated correctly during neuroblast delamination, Inscuteable became homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm during mitosis [9].

Anatomical context of insc


Associations of insc with chemical compounds

  • Bazooka provides an apical cue for Inscuteable localization in Drosophila neuroblasts [13].
  • In this study, we have used a simple Ca(2+) imaging assay to compare the abilities of various Ins (1,4,5)P(3)-metabolizing enzymes to regulate a maximal histamine-stimulated Ca(2+) signal in HeLa cells [14].

Physical interactions of insc

  • Furthermore, we find that the Abs protein physically interacts with insc RNA [7].
  • Asymmetric localisation of Inscuteable is initiated during neuroblast delamination by direct binding to Bazooka, an apically localised protein that contains protein-interaction motifs known as PDZ domains [9].

Regulatory relationships of insc


Other interactions of insc

  • Abstrakt, a DEAD box protein, regulates Insc levels and asymmetric division of neural and mesodermal progenitors [7].
  • Furthermore, in insc mutants the eve expressing pericardial cells of the developing heart are significantly reduced in numbers [16].
  • Inscuteable (Insc) and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) are translocated to the apical cell cortex during asymmetrical cell division of Drosophila neuroblast [17].
  • BACKGROUND: In the fruit fly Drosophila, the Inscuteable protein localises to the apical cell cortex in neuroblasts and directs both the apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and the basal localisation of the protein determinants Numb and Prospero during mitosis [9].
  • A protein complex containing Inscuteable and the Galpha-binding protein Pins orients asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila [9].


  1. A functional analysis of inscuteable and its roles during Drosophila asymmetric cell divisions. Tio, M., Zavortink, M., Yang, X., Chia, W. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The Partner of Inscuteable/Discs-large complex is required to establish planar polarity during asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Bellaïche, Y., Radovic, A., Woods, D.F., Hough, C.D., Parmentier, M.L., O'Kane, C.J., Bryant, P.J., Schweisguth, F. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Inscuteable and Staufen mediate asymmetric localization and segregation of prospero RNA during Drosophila neuroblast cell divisions. Li, P., Yang, X., Wasser, M., Cai, Y., Chia, W. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Miranda is required for the asymmetric localization of Prospero during mitosis in Drosophila. Shen, C.P., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. cdc2 links the Drosophila cell cycle and asymmetric division machineries. Tio, M., Udolph, G., Yang, X., Chia, W. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Inscuteable mRNA localization is dynein-dependent and regulates apicobasal polarity and spindle length in Drosophila neuroblasts. Hughes, J.R., Bullock, S.L., Ish-Horowicz, D. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Abstrakt, a DEAD box protein, regulates Insc levels and asymmetric division of neural and mesodermal progenitors. Irion, U., Leptin, M., Siller, K., Fuerstenberg, S., Cai, Y., Doe, C.Q., Chia, W., Yang, X. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Drosophila homologs of mammalian TNF/TNFR-related molecules regulate segregation of Miranda/Prospero in neuroblasts. Wang, H., Cai, Y., Chia, W., Yang, X. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A protein complex containing Inscuteable and the Galpha-binding protein Pins orients asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila. Schaefer, M., Shevchenko, A., Shevchenko, A., Knoblich, J.A. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of inscuteable in orienting asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila. Kraut, R., Chia, W., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N., Knoblich, J.A. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Inscuteable and numb mediate asymmetric muscle progenitor cell divisions during Drosophila myogenesis. Carmena, A., Murugasu-Oei, B., Menon, D., Jiménez, F., Chia, W. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Binary sibling neuronal cell fate decisions in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system are nonstochastic and require inscuteable-mediated asymmetry of ganglion mother cells. Buescher, M., Yeo, S.L., Udolph, G., Zavortink, M., Yang, X., Tear, G., Chia, W. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Bazooka provides an apical cue for Inscuteable localization in Drosophila neuroblasts. Wodarz, A., Ramrath, A., Kuchinke, U., Knust, E. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases by calcium and localization in cells. Lloyd-Burton, S.M., Yu, J.C., Irvine, R.F., Schell, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. The Snail protein family regulates neuroblast expression of inscuteable and string, genes involved in asymmetry and cell division in Drosophila. Ashraf, S.I., Ip, Y.T. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Somatic mesoderm differentiation and the development of a subset of pericardial cells depend on the not enough muscles (nem) locus, which contains the inscuteable gene and the intron located gene, skittles. Knirr, S., Breuer, S., Paululat, A., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Mech. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and characterization of human Inscuteable gene in silico. Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
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