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Gene Review

kst  -  karst

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG12008, Dmel\CG12008, Kst, Spec-beta[[H]], beta-Spectrin, ...
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Disease relevance of kst

  • We have isolated mutations in the gene encoding &bgr ;Heavy-spectrin in Drosophila, and have named this essential locus karst. karst mutant individuals have a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by extensive larval lethality and, in adult escapers, rough eyes, bent wings, tracheal defects and infertility [1].

High impact information on kst

  • This is followed by the redistribution of beta Heavy-spectrin, a component of the membrane cytoskeleton, and by the ectopic deposition of cuticle and other apical components into these areas [2].
  • Although Ankyrin is not required for the localization of the Spectrin skeleton to the neuromuscular junction, it contributes to Spectrin-mediated synapse development [3].
  • Crumbs interacts with moesin and beta(Heavy)-spectrin in the apical membrane skeleton of Drosophila [4].
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that Crumbs is necessary for the organization of the apical SBMS in embryos and Schneider 2 cells, whereas the localization of Crumbs is not affected in karst mutants that eliminate the apical SBMS [4].
  • We report that apical beta(Heavy)-spectrin (beta(H)), a terminal web protein that is also associated with the zonula adherens, is essential for normal epithelial morphogenesis of the Drosophila follicle cell epithelium during oogenesis [5].

Biological context of kst


Anatomical context of kst


Associations of kst with chemical compounds

  • Rhodamine phalloidin staining of karst mutant ovaries similarly reveals no conspicuous defect in the actin cytoskeleton or cellular morphology in egg chambers [1].

Co-localisations of kst


Other interactions of kst


  1. Drosophila betaHeavy-spectrin is essential for development and contributes to specific cell fates in the eye. Thomas, G.H., Zarnescu, D.C., Juedes, A.E., Bales, M.A., Londergan, A., Korte, C.C., Kiehart, D.P. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of crumbs confers apical character on plasma membrane domains of ectodermal epithelia of Drosophila. Wodarz, A., Hinz, U., Engelbert, M., Knust, E. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. A postsynaptic Spectrin scaffold defines active zone size, spacing, and efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Pielage, J., Fetter, R.D., Davis, G.W. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Crumbs interacts with moesin and beta(Heavy)-spectrin in the apical membrane skeleton of Drosophila. Médina, E., Williams, J., Klipfell, E., Zarnescu, D., Thomas, G., Le Bivic, A. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Apical spectrin is essential for epithelial morphogenesis but not apicobasal polarity in Drosophila. Zarnescu, D.C., Thomas, G.H. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. {beta}-Spectrin functions independently of Ankyrin to regulate the establishment and maintenance of axon connections in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Garbe, D.S., Das, A., Dubreuil, R.R., Bashaw, G.J. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic studies of spectrin: new life for a ghost protein. Dubreuil, R.R., Grushko, T. Bioessays (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Beta heavy-spectrin has a restricted tissue and subcellular distribution during Drosophila embryogenesis. Thomas, G.H., Kiehart, D.P. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. The C-terminal domain of Drosophila (beta) heavy-spectrin exhibits autonomous membrane association and modulates membrane area. Williams, J.A., MacIver, B., Klipfell, E.A., Thomas, G.H. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. A Drosophila homologue of membrane-skeleton protein 4.1 is associated with septate junctions and is encoded by the coracle gene. Fehon, R.G., Dawson, I.A., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Brush border spectrin is required for early endosome recycling in Drosophila. Phillips, M.D., Thomas, G.H. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. sma-1 encodes a betaH-spectrin homolog required for Caenorhabditis elegans morphogenesis. McKeown, C., Praitis, V., Austin, J. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
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