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Gene Review

shi  -  shibire

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG18102, DNM3, DYN, Ddyn, Ddyn3, ...
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Disease relevance of shi

  • In addition, the entire vesicle pool can be depleted in shibire comatose double mutants, demonstrating that NSF activity is not required for the fusion step itself [1].

Psychiatry related information on shi

  • Targeted expression of shibire ts and semaphorin 1a reveals critical periods for synapse formation in the giant fiber of Drosophila [2].

High impact information on shi

  • Analyses of quantal size, FM1-43 loading, and dynamin function further demonstrate that, even in the absence of synaptojanin or endophilin, vesicles undergo full fusion and re-formation [3].
  • Both planar transcytosis initiated by Dynamin-mediated endocytosis and extracellular diffusion have been proposed for Dpp movement across cells [4].
  • We have used a temperature-sensitive dynamin transgene, which disrupts synaptic transmission reversibly and on the time-scale of minutes, to investigate the temporal requirements for ongoing neural activity during memory formation [5].
  • Mutations in shibire cause a defect in endocytosis leading to accumulation of coated pits and deep invaginations at the plasma membrane of all tissues examined [6].
  • Dynamin self-assembles into rings suggesting a mechanism for coated vesicle budding [6].

Biological context of shi


Anatomical context of shi


Associations of shi with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of shi


Other interactions of shi

  • We initiated an investigation of the possible interaction of DAP-160 (dynamin-associated protein of 160 kDa), a Drosophila member of the intersectin family, with the STNB protein [21].
  • Moreover, a genetic mutation that lowers GTP abundance (awd(msf15)), which reduces the paralytic temperature threshold of other temperature-sensitive shibire mutations that lie closer to consensus GTPase motifs, did not reduce the paralytic threshold of shi(ts1) [11].
  • Consistent with a direct role of shibire in vesicular trafficking through Rab11 endosomes, Shibire is enriched in this compartment [19].
  • 17 MMAPs were identified; seven have been previously implicated in cellularization and/or cytokinesis, including KLP3A, Anillin, Septins, and Dynamin [22].
  • Drosophila glypicans control the cell-to-cell movement of Hedgehog by a dynamin-independent process [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of shi


  1. SNARE-complex disassembly by NSF follows synaptic-vesicle fusion. Littleton, J.T., Barnard, R.J., Titus, S.A., Slind, J., Chapman, E.R., Ganetzky, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Targeted expression of shibire ts and semaphorin 1a reveals critical periods for synapse formation in the giant fiber of Drosophila. Murphey, R.K., Froggett, S.J., Caruccio, P., Shan-Crofts, X., Kitamoto, T., Godenschwege, T.A. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. A slowed classical pathway rather than kiss-and-run mediates endocytosis at synapses lacking synaptojanin and endophilin. Dickman, D.K., Horne, J.A., Meinertzhagen, I.A., Schwarz, T.L. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Drosophila Dpp morphogen movement is independent of dynamin-mediated endocytosis but regulated by the glypican members of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Belenkaya, T.Y., Han, C., Yan, D., Opoka, R.J., Khodoun, M., Liu, H., Lin, X. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Disruption of neurotransmission in Drosophila mushroom body blocks retrieval but not acquisition of memory. Dubnau, J., Grady, L., Kitamoto, T., Tully, T. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Dynamin self-assembles into rings suggesting a mechanism for coated vesicle budding. Hinshaw, J.E., Schmid, S.L. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Drosophila awd, the homolog of human nm23, regulates FGF receptor levels and functions synergistically with shi/dynamin during tracheal development. Dammai, V., Adryan, B., Lavenburg, K.R., Hsu, T. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. A temperature-sensitive allele of Drosophila sesB reveals acute functions for the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase in synaptic transmission and dynamin regulation. Rikhy, R., Ramaswami, M., Krishnan, K.S. Genetics (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Roles for Drosophila mushroom body neurons in olfactory learning and memory. Akalal, D.B., Wilson, C.F., Zong, L., Tanaka, N.K., Ito, K., Davis, R.L. Learn. Mem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. shibire's enhancer is cancer's suppressor. Deitcher, D. Trends Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Unique biochemical and behavioral alterations in Drosophila shibire(ts1) mutants imply a conformational state affecting dynamin subcellular distribution and synaptic vesicle cycling. Chen, M.L., Green, D., Liu, L., Lam, Y.C., Mukai, L., Rao, S., Ramagiri, S., Krishnan, K.S., Engel, J.E., Lin, J.J., Wu, C.F. J. Neurobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase, a source of GTP, is required for dynamin-dependent synaptic vesicle recycling. Krishnan, K.S., Rikhy, R., Rao, S., Shivalkar, M., Mosko, M., Narayanan, R., Etter, P., Estes, P.S., Ramaswami, M. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Imaging Clathrin Dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster Hemocytes Reveals a Role for Actin in Vesicle Fission. Kochubey, O., Majumdar, A., Klingauf, J. Traffic (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Drosophila homologue of Eps15 is essential for synaptic vesicle recycling. Majumdar, A., Ramagiri, S., Rikhy, R. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Dynamin-like protein encoded by the Drosophila shibire gene associated with vesicular traffic. van der Bliek, A.M., Meyerowitz, E.M. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Alleviation of the temperature-sensitive paralytic phenotype of shibire(ts) mutants in Drosophila by sub-anesthetic concentrations of carbon dioxide. Krishnan, K.S., Chakravarty, S., Rao, S., Raghuram, V., Ramaswami, M. J. Neurogenet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Reversible blockage of membrane retrieval and endocytosis in the garland cell of the temperature-sensitive mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, shibirets1. Kosaka, T., Ikeda, K. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Dynamin, encoded by shibire, is central to cardiac function. Johnson, E., Ringo, J., Dowse, H. J. Exp. Zool. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Trafficking through Rab11 endosomes is required for cellularization during Drosophila embryogenesis. Pelissier, A., Chauvin, J.P., Lecuit, T. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Dynein light chain 1 regulates dynamin-mediated F-actin assembly during sperm individualization in Drosophila. Ghosh-Roy, A., Desai, B.S., Ray, K. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular and genetic characterization of the interactions between the Drosophila stoned-B protein and DAP-160 (intersectin). Kelly, L.E., Phillips, A.M. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Lava lamp, a novel peripheral golgi protein, is required for Drosophila melanogaster cellularization. Sisson, J.C., Field, C., Ventura, R., Royou, A., Sullivan, W. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Drosophila glypicans control the cell-to-cell movement of Hedgehog by a dynamin-independent process. Han, C., Belenkaya, T.Y., Wang, B., Lin, X. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Fast synaptic fatigue in shibire mutants reveals a rapid requirement for dynamin in synaptic vesicle membrane trafficking. Kawasaki, F., Hazen, M., Ordway, R.W. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Multiple forms of dynamin are encoded by shibire, a Drosophila gene involved in endocytosis. Chen, M.S., Obar, R.A., Schroeder, C.C., Austin, T.W., Poodry, C.A., Wadsworth, S.C., Vallee, R.B. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression of shibire, a Drosophila gene involved in endocytosis. Chen, M.S., Burgess, C.C., Vallee, R.B., Wadsworth, S.C. J. Cell. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Two isoforms of Drosophila dynamin in wild-type and shibire(ts) neural tissue: different subcellular localization and association mechanisms. Gass, G.V., Lin, J.J., Scaife, R., Wu, C.F. J. Neurogenet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Association of a dynamin-like protein with the Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells. Henley, J.R., McNiven, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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