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Gene Review

ENO2  -  enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of ENO2

  • Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) immunoreactivity was used to characterize the subpopulation of small B ganglion cells, whereas neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity acted as a general neuronal cell marker [1].

High impact information on ENO2

  • Primary cell cultures of diencephalon astrocytes that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but not neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity, were employed to determine the cellular distribution and physiological role for the three known receptor subtypes [2].
  • Using chicken brain mRNAs, alpha and gamma enolase precursors were synthesized in the rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system [3].
  • Double-labelling with NSE and S100 revealed PKC alpha beta/S100-positive glial cells present in the paleostriatal region only [4].
  • Furthermore, a computer-assisted three-dimensional imaging technique allowed to clarify the reverse distributional pattern of both elements: NSE-positive pinealocytes displayed a dense distribution especially in the vesicular portion of the gland, whereas NSE-immunoreactive nerve cells were mainly found in the pineal stalk [5].
  • Immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) revealed that NSE is localized in both a limited number of pinealocytes and intrinsic afferent neurons in the pineal organ of the domestic fowl [5].

Anatomical context of ENO2

  • Northern blot analysis has revealed that the mRNA for gamma-enolase (2.3 kb) is expressed in the brain and, to much less but significant extents, in the pituitary and adrenal gland of the chicken [6].
  • Our results suggest that NNE and NSE are regulated separately by various factors involved in nerve cell maturation [7].
  • Developmental changes of the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and the non-neuronal enolase (NNE) were determined in pure neuronal, or mixed cultures of neuronal and glial cells, prepared from brains of 8-day-old chick embryos, as a function of cellular development with time in culture [8].
  • Antibodies to neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and S-100 protein variably stained nerves, but melanocytes were only rarely immunolabelled by NSE antibodies and there was no specific staining of these cells for S-100 or GFAP [9].
  • In normal fetuses, immunostained elements positive for NSE first appeared in the spinal gray matter on postincubation day 16 and increased in intensity during the fetal period [10].

Associations of ENO2 with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ENO2

  • Similar immunoprecipitation of reticulocyte lysates programmed with total RNA derived from embryonic chick heart failed to indicate the synthesis of NSE [11].
  • Autoradiography indicated the synthesis of a product that comigrated with purified NSE and was recognized only by the anti-NSE antisera [11].


  1. Substrate-dependent migration of myelin-associated glycoprotein immunoreactive cells in cultured explants of dorsal root ganglia from chick embryos. Rochat, A., Omlin, F.X., Droz, B. Dev. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional melatonin receptors and metabolic coupling in cultured chick astrocytes. Adachi, A., Natesan, A.K., Whitfield-Rucker, M.G., Weigum, S.E., Cassone, V.M. Glia (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental changes in levels of translatable mRNAs for enolase isozymes in chicken brain. Tanaka, M., Sugisaki, K., Nakashima, K. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Differential distribution of protein kinase C (PKC alpha beta and PKC gamma) isoenzyme immunoreactivity in the chick brain. Van der Zee, E.A., Bolhuis, J.J., Solomonia, R.O., Horn, G., Luiten, P.G. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of neuron-specific enolase in the pineal organ of the domestic fowl during post-hatching development. Sato, T., Kaneko, M., Ekataksin, W., Wake, K. Cell Tissue Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. cDNA cloning and characterization of neuron-specific enolase from chicken. Tanaka, M., Taniguchi, T., Ohkubo, T., Nakashima, K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Factors involved in expression of neuron-specific and non-neuronal enolase activity in developing chick brain and in primary cultures of chick neurons. Ledig, M., Tholey, G., Mandel, P. Brain Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Neuron-specific and non-neuronal enolase in developing chick brain and primary cultures of chick neurons. Ledig, M., Tholey, G., Mandel, P. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Malignant melanocytic neural crest tumor in a young chicken (Gallus domesticus). Hafner, S., Latimer, K., Kelley, L.C., Wortham, K., Puette, M. Vet. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuronal overmaturation in dysraphism: ontogenic expression of neuropeptides in the fetal brain and developmental anomalies in exencephaly. Oi, S., Matsumae, M., Sato, O., Matsumoto, S. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. De novo synthesis of neuron-specific enolase in a rabbit reticulocyte translation system programmed by poly(A)-RNA from rat brain. Walker, W.A., Zomzely-Neurath, C. Neurochem. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
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